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Uporaba eteričnih olj v varstvu uskladiščenega žita pred skladiščnimi škodljivci
Škofic, Lucija Laura (Author), Trdan, Stanislav (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Zaradi skrbi za okolje in zdravje ljudi je v kmetijstvu vedno večji poudarek na razvoju novih metod varstva rastlin, ki bi lahko zmanjšala oziroma nadomestila uporabo sintetičnih insekticidov. K pospešenemu prestopu botruje tudi opažena odpornost večih škodljivih žuželk na kemične pripravke, na primer odpornost rjavega mokarja (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) na splošno razširjeni fumigant fosfin. Ena izmed alternativ so rastlinska sredstva na osnovi eteričnih olj. Eterična olja so zmesi biološko aktivnih kemičnih spojin iz 20-60 komponent, od katerih 2-3 glavne sestavine zasedajo večinski delež, ostale pa so prisotne v sledovih. Odraža jih visoka hlapljivost, saj lahko preidejo v plinasto stanje že pri sobni ali rahlo višji temperaturi, in so najprimernejša za uporabo v obliki fumiganta, dokaj uspešna pa so tudi v obliki repelentov ter pri kontaktnem delovanju. Poleg insektov učinkovito zatirajo tudi bakterije, glive, viruse in ogorčice, sam vpliv posamezne vrste eteričnega olja pa se razlikuje glede na vrsto škodljivca. Ljudi, živali in rib naj ne bi ogrožala saj zanje niso toksična oziroma v veliko manjši meri, saj zaradi visoke hlapljivosti te skupine tudi težje pridejo z njimi v kontakt. Vsa 4 predstavljena eterična olja, pomarančevca (Citrus x sinensis (L.) Osbeck); rod Citrus), bazilike (Ocimum basilicum L.), navadnega rožmarina (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in česna (Allium sativum L.) izražajo visoko fumigantno delovanje proti skladiščnim škodljivcem kot so koruzni žužek (Sitphilus zeamais Motschulsky), rjavi mokar (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) ter žitni kutar (Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius), medtem ko je uspešnost navadnega rožmarina bila opažena tudi pri skupini na fosfin odpornih odraslih osebkov rjavega mokarja. Eterično olje česna in njegova glavna komponenta dialil trisulfid sta z apliciranjem na vzorce zrnja uspela tudi popolnoma prekiniti nadaljnje razmnoževanje rjavega mokarja obenem pa nista vplivala na slabšo sposobnost kaljenja koruznih zrn.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:žita, eterična olja, škodljivci, navadni rožmarin, bazilika, pomarančevec, česen
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2017
Publisher:[L. L. Škofic]
UDC:633.1:632.7:632.937:547.913(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:8781689 Link is opened in a new window
Views:418
Downloads:134
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Use of essential oils in stored cereals protection against stored pests
Abstract:
Due to the concern for the environment and human health, agriculture is increasingly focusing on the development of new methods of plant protection, which could decrease or replace the use of synthetic insecticides. The accelerated transition is also encouraged by the observed resistance of several harmful insects to chemical substances; e.g. the resistance of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) to the widespread fumigant phosphine. Essential oils are mixtures of biologically active chemical compounds, consisting of 20-60 components, of which 2-3 main components represent a majority and the remaining components are present in traces. They are known for their high volatility, since they can transition into gaseous state already at room temperature or at a slightly higher temperature, and are most suitable for use in the form of a fumigants, but are also quite successful in the form of repellents and as contact substances. In addition to insects, they effectively suppress bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes, but the use of individual types of essential oils differs in regard of the type of the pest. They do not represent danger for people, animals and fish, since they are not toxic for these groups or are toxic for them in a significantly lower extent, because of their high volatility it would be even harder for these groups to get in contact with them. All of the 4 presented essential oils, Sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis (L.) Osbeck); species Citrus), Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) show high fumigant activity against the warehouse pests such as maize weevil (Sitphilus zeamays Motschulsky), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst) and lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius), while the successfulness of Rosemary was also observed in the group of phosphine resistant adult specimens of the red flour beetle. The essential oil of garlic and its main component dialyl trisulfide were with their application on grain samples successful in the complete discontinuance of further reproduction of the red flour beetle, without simultaneously causing poorer corn grain sprouting ability.

Keywords:cereal, essential oils, pest, Sweet orange, Basil, Rosemary, Garlic

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