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Ciceronov koncept prava v njegovem spisu De legibus
Krisper, Eva Margareta (Author), Kranjc, Janez (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
V magistrski nalogi obravnavam koncept prava, kakršen je razviden iz pravno-filozofskega spisa O zakonih slovitega rimskega pravnika, politika in govornika Marka Tulija Cicerona. Umeščen je v enodnevni pogovor med piscem, ki je hkrati glavni govorec, njegovim bratom Kvintom ter tesnim prijateljem Atikom. Tekom treh knjig, iz katerih sestoji do danes ohranjeni tekst, Cicero poskuša zasnovati idealne zakone, ki bi ustrezali prav tako idealnemu (mešanemu) tipu državne ureditve, razčlenjene v njegovem predhodnem delu O državi. Vse dele spisa preveva eklektičen pristop do doktrinarnih dognanj starogrških filozofskih šol, zlasti stoiške, ter z njo povezane doktrine naravnega prava. Skladno s tem je prva knjiga pravzaprav preambula, ki ima vlogo temeljnih načel ali bolje rečeno vodil, ki so sicer objektivno nezavezujoča, a hkrati najpomembnejša za uresničitev človekovega smisla. V drugi knjigi je močno poudarjeno zavedanje o vseprisotnosti boga kot sodnika, ki utrjuje sporočilo preambule, ter o pomenu že uveljavljenih običajev in predpisov pri snovanju konkretnih zakonov, ki urejajo religiozne aspekte rimskega življenja. Vloga tradicije je izpostavljena tudi v utemeljitvi ureditve državne oblasti v tretji knjigi. Tu pa Cicero apelira neposredno na najvplivnejše člane družbe – aristokrate, rekoč, da je njihovo intimno upoštevanje danih pravil, in posledični zunanji izraz tega ponotranjenja, ključen za to, da pravila razumejo vsi podrejeni, nenazadnje pa tudi za obstanek republike, ki naj ji takšni (z naravo skladni) zakoni vladajo. Bralec mora splošne predpise neprestano vrednotiti skozi perspektivo človeka, ki stremi k dosegu kreposti kot izpopolnjenega razuma, lastnega naravi. Pri tem pa skozi spis spoznamo, da cilj še ni dosežen s krepostjo, temveč šele, ko to vrlino udejanjimo v dobro družbe. Enako kot Cicero pravo, pravičnost in razum pripisuje vsem ljudem, pa si od vseh želi tudi javnega udejstvovanja zavoljo obstoja idealne skupnosti.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:Cicero, O zakonih, rimsko pravo, pravna filozofija, naravno pravo
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:15803473 Link is opened in a new window
Views:978
Downloads:425
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Cicero´s Concept of Law in His Treatise on Laws
Abstract:
In the following thesis, I will discuss the concept of law, as laid down by the renowned roman lawyer, orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero in his legal and philosophical treatise On Laws. The dialogue of the essay takes place in a single day, following the discussion between the author – the principle speaker –, his brother Quintus and his closest friend Atticus. During the course of three books, Cicero tries to form a set of laws that corresponds to the ideal (mixed) form of government, advocated for in his previous work On the Commonwealth. All three remaining parts of the text are permeated by Cicero´s eclectical approach to the doctrinal asertments of the helenistic philosophical schools, particularly the stoic school of taught and its theory on natural law. With regard to the latter, the first book serves as a preamble to the laws, setting forth the fundamental principles, which are, although objectively not binding, crucial for achieving the purpose of human existence. In the second book, Cicero emphasizes the importance of being aware of the omnipresence of God as judge, thus consolidating the message of the preamble. He also stresses the need of forming religious laws with regard to the already enacted laws and traditions of Roman ancestors. Tradition further plays an important role in the provisions on magistrates in the third book. In this part, Cicero appeals directly to the most influential persons of roman society – the aristocrats, claiming that their intimate and subsequent outwardly expressed obedience to the imposed laws is key to correct implementation of the provisions among all people, and as result, for the preservation of the republic, which is to be governed by such laws. The reader is constantly summoned to evaluate these general provisions from the perspective of one, seeking to achieve virtue or perfected reason, implanted in nature. However, as the extant text shows, the “goal of life” is not yet attained by becoming virtuous, but only when virtue is used for purposive action. And in the same way as Cicero asserts that all people have law, justice and reason in common, he calls on all, to publically engage in preserving the ideal community.

Keywords:Cicero, On Laws, Roman law, legal philosophy, natural law

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