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Toplotna prevodnost in prepustnost za vodno paro ortotičnih materialov : poročilo o raziskavi
Grahek, Sara (Author), Sever Škapin, Andrijana (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Uvod: Pri izbiri materialov za izdelavo pripomočkov v ortotiki in protetiki je potrebno upoštevati nekatere njihove osnovne in predelovalne lastnosti. Lastnosti ortotičnih materialov, ki med drugim vplivata na kvaliteto pacientovega življenja, sta toplotna prevodnost in prepustnost za vodno paro. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je izbrati nekaj najpogosteje uporabljenih materialov v ortotiki ter določiti razlike prepustnosti za vodno paro in razlike toplotne prevodnosti teh materialov. Metode dela: Določanje toplotne prevodnosti je bilo izvedeno po zahtevah SIST EN 12667:2002, prepustnost za vodno paro pa smo merili po SIST EN 7783:2012. Pri merjenju toplotne prevodnosti je bila uporabljena posebna naprava, izdelana iz dveh plošč z različnima temperaturama, med kateri je bil vstavljen vzorec materiala. Iz vrednosti, ki so bile izmerjene, smo na podlagi izračunov določili toplotno prevodnost materiala. Za merjenje prepustnosti za vodno paro smo uporabili merilne posodice. Hitrost prehajanja vodne pare smo določili gravimetrično, kot količino vodne pare, ki pri sobni temperaturi v časovni enoti preide iz merilne posodice z višjo relativno vlažnostjo prek vzorca v prostor z nižjo relativno vlago. S pomočjo izračunov smo dobili vrednosti prepustnosti za vodno paro za posamezen material. Rezultati: V poskusu so bili testirani različni ortotični materiali in sicer termoplastični polimeri: polietilen, polipropilen in njun kopolimer, penjena polimera s komercialnima imenoma Poliform in Plastozot, polimerni kompozit, ojačen z ogljikovimi vlakni in usnje. Najnižje vrednosti toplotne prevodnosti so bile izmerjene pri penjenih polimernih materialih, sledilo je usnje, najvišje vrednosti pa so bile izmerjene pri termoplastičnih materialih. Največja prepustnost za vodno paro je bila izmerjena pri usnju, sledita mu penjena polimera, najnižje vrednosti prepustnosti za vodno paro pa imajo termoplastični materiali in kompoziti. Razprava in sklep: Rezultati so pokazali, da imajo različni ortotični materiali različne vrednosti toplotne prevodnosti in prepustnosti za vodno paro, poznavanje teh lastnosti pa je bistveno za izbiro ustreznega ortotičnega materiala za posamezno uporabo. Nepravilna izbira lahko negativno vpliva na pacientovo kožo in udobje pri nošenju pripomočka. Da bi prišli do podrobnejših rezultatov, bi bilo potrebno v proces meritev vključiti tudi paciente.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:ortoze, termoplasti, kompoziti, usnje, toplotna prevodnost, prepustnost za vodno paro
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:5302123 Link is opened in a new window
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Downloads:160
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Thermal conductivity and water vapur transmission of orthotics materials : research report
Abstract:
Introduction: When selecting materials for the manufacture of devices used in orthotics and prosthetics, it is necessary to consider some of their basic properties and processing. The properties of orthotic materials, among other things, affect the quality of the patient's life, the thermal conductivity and the permeability to water vapour. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to choose some of the most common materials used in orthotics and determine the differences in terms of permeability to water vapour and the thermal conductivity of these materials. Methods: The thermal conductivity was determined in accordance with the requirements of EN 12667: 2002, while the water vapour’s permeability was measured according to DIN EN 7783:2012. For measuring the thermal conductivity a special device was used, made from two sheets at different temperatures, between which the sample material was inserted. From the measured values, the heat conductivity of the material was calculated. For measuring the permeability with respect to water vapour a measuring cup was used. The speed of migration of the water vapour was determined gravimetrically, while the amount of water vapour at room temperature was measured per unit time passing from the measuring cup with a higher relative humidity through the sample into a space with a lower relative humidity. Based on calculations we obtained the values of the permeability to water vapour for a particular material. Results: During the experiments we tested different orthotic materials, i.e., the thermoplastic polymers: polyethylene, polypropylene and their copolymers, foamed polymers with the commercial names Poliform and Plastozot, polymer composites, reinforced with carbon fibres and leather. The lowest values of the thermal conductivity were measured in the foamed plastic materials, followed by leather; the highest values were measured in the thermoplastic material. The maximum permeability to water vapour was measured in the leather, followed by the polymer foam. The minimum values of the permeability to water vapour were observed for thermoplastic materials and composites. Discussion and conclusions: The results show that the selected orthotic materials had different values of thermal conductivity and permeability to water vapour. An understanding of these properties is essential for selecting the appropriate orthotic materials for a particular application. The wrong choice may adversely affect the patient's skin and comfort while wearing the device. To determine the impact of the use of these materials and consequently their properties on the skin and the patient's well being, it would be necessary to include a study involving patients.

Keywords:orthoses, thermoplastic polymers, composites, leather, thermal conductivity, water vapour permeability

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