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Vitamin B12 – viri in vpliv na zdravje
Černe, Romana (Author), Kreft, Marko (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Salobir, Janez (Reviewer)

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Abstract
Vitamin B12 je v vodi topen vitamin, ki v človeškem telesu igra vlogo kofaktorja dveh encimov: metionin sintaze in L-metilmalonil-CoA mutaze. Je nepogrešljiv pri vseh procesih delitve celic in rasti in je poleg folne kisline in železa nujno potreben za nastanek rdečih krvnih telesc. Je bistven pri metabolizmu ogljikovih hidratov, maščobe in beljakovin ter potreben za sintezo purina in timidina. Prav tako je potreben za pravilno delovanje ščitnice, krepi imunski sistem ter zmanjšuje utrujenost. Vitamin B12 je bistven pri razvoju možganov, mielinizaciji živčnih vlaken, kognitivnih funkcijah in drugo. Vzroke pomanjkanja vitamina B12 lahko iščemo v pomanjkljivi prehrani in v različnih predelih prebavne poti, saj je za dobro absorpcijo potrebno pravilno delovanje tako želodca, tankega črevesa kot tudi trebušne slinavke. Navkljub vsem pomembnim vlogam, ki jih ima ta kompleksen, v vodi topen vitamin, naj bi ga po priporočilih DACH dnevno zaužili le 3 µg. Edini zadovoljiv in zanesljiv naraven vir B12 so živila živalskega izvora. Drugi viri, kot so fermentirani sojini izdelki, črni čaj, nekatere gobe, alge in zelenjava, ki je gnojena z organskimi gnojili ali gojena s hidroponiko in obogatena z vitaminom B12, so z vidika oskrbe nepomembni. Z vidika oskrbe z B12 so edina zanesljiva zamenjava živil živalskega izvora zato preparati z B12, katerih industrijska proizvodnja temelji na mikrobiološki biosintezi, medtem ko je kemijska sinteza ekonomsko neugodna in zahtevna.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:vitamini, vitamin B12, kemijska sestava, koristne lastnosti, metabolizem, principi delovanja, bolezni, posledice pomanjkanja vitamina B12, anemija, nevrološke motnje, vpliv na zdravje, prehranska dopolnila
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2017
Publisher:[R. Černe]
UDC:577.164.1:61:613.2
COBISS.SI-ID:4839288 This link opens in a new window
Views:1120
Downloads:418
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Vitamin B12 – sources and effect on health
Abstract:
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a role in the human body as a cofactor of two enzymes: methionine synthase and the L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. It is indispensable in all cell division processes, for growth, and in addition to folic acid and iron, it is essential for the formation of red blood cells. It is also essential in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and necessary for the synthesis of purine and thymidine. It is needed for the proper functioning of the thyroid, it boosts the immune system and reduce fatigue. Vitamin B12 has a key role in the normal function of the brain, the myelination of nerve fibers, cognitive functions and other functions. The vitamin B12 deficiency may be due to malfunctioning of several sections of the gastrointestinal tract, since normal absorption of vitamin B12 requires a healthy stomach, pancreas, and small intestine. In spite of all the important roles that this complex vitamin has, the daily recommendation according to the DACH is 3 µg only. The only satisfying and reliable natural source is food of animal origin. Other sources like fermented soy products, black tea, some mushrooms, algae and vegetables which is fertilized with organic fertilizers or hydroponic cultivation and enriched with vitamin B12, are unimportant from nutritional aspect. From the point of view of supply of vitamin B12, the only reliable replacement for food of animal origin are preparations with vitamin B12, whose industrial production is based on microbiological biosynthesis, while the chemical synthesis is uneconomical and extremely demanding.

Keywords:vitamins, vitamin B12, chemical composition, useful benefits, metabolism, principles of action, disorders, the consequences of shortages of vitamin B12, anemia, neurological disorders, influence on health, food supplements

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