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Mostovi med sedanjostjo in preteklostjo, stigmatizacijo in sprejemanjem, religijo in znanostjo: menstruacija brez predsodkov : pregled literature
Mlinar, Pia (Author), Mihelič Zajec, Andreja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Uvod: Menstruacija je izkušnja večine deklet in žensk po celem svetu, pa vendar je bila stigmatizirana s strani večine kultur in religij. Odklonilen odnos do menstruacije naj bi bil plod socialno-zgodovinskih procesov in družbenega odnosa, zato naj bi k temu vprašanju pristopili z željo po spremembi. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je raziskati izvor stigmatizacije menstruacije in ugotoviti, ali je le-ta prisotna še danes, ter nakazati, kako to premostiti in doseči, da bo menstruacija brez predsodkov. Metode dela: Uporabili smo deskriptivno metoda dela. Zbiranje literature je potekalo od maja 2015 do februarja 2017, pri čemer smo zbrali 21 virov v angleškem jeziku in 3 v slovenskem. Literaturo smo iskali s pomočjo podatkovnih baz CINAHL, Medline, SocINDEX in kooperativnega online bibliografskega sistema in servisa COBISS.SI, in sicer v enoti Mestne knjižnice Ljubljana – v Knjižnici Šiška. 11 izbranih člankov smo vključili v analizo in sintezo odgovorov na raziskovalna vprašanja. Rezultati: Izraz stigma, ki so ga iznašli že stari Grki, označuje, da stigma izvira iz razlik, pridobljeni odziv na razlike pa je strah. Menstruacija je bolj prikrita stigma; zanjo so značilni trije glavni tabuji: tabu prikrivanja, tabu dejavnosti in tabu sporočila. Znanost, religija, kultura, socialno-ekonomski status, mediji ipd. dostikrat prispevajo k utrjevanju menstrualne stigme. To pa ima velik vpliv na zdravje žensk, njihovo spolnost, družbeni status in dobro počutje. Da bi se ženske sprejele vsak dan v mesecu, se mora spremeniti kulturološki pogled na menstruacijo, pa tudi same ženske morajo prevzeti nadzor nad tem, kako doživljajo in občutijo menstruacijo. Zelo pomembno je izobraziti dekleta o menstruaciji s pomočjo avtoritetnega, tehničnega in utelešenega znanja. Pri tem imajo pomembno vlogo zdravstveni delavci, ki so posredno ali neposredno vključeni v vse tri načine predaje znanja. Razprava in sklep: Predsodki oziroma odklonilen odnos do menstruacije, strah, ki izzove gnus in odpor, prikrivanje, omejevanje, sram pred odkritjem, nesprejemljiv govor ipd. so zidovi, ki onemogočajo, da se menstruacijo sprejme kot povsem običajen in zaželen mesečni dogodek, ki je odraz zdravja, in ne bolezni. Zaradi tega je potreben aktiven prispevek vseh. Morda ne bo mogoče odstraniti vseh predsodkov, pomembno pa je, da so odstranjeni tisti, ki diskreditirajo, jemljejo ugled posameznika in vodijo v stigmatizacijo. Menstruacija brez teh predsodkov ni utopija, temveč prihodnost.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:strah, sram, tabu, zdravje žensk, menstruacija
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:5291883 Link is opened in a new window
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Downloads:624
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Bridges between present time and past, stigma and acceptance, religion and science: menstruation without prejudice : literature review
Abstract:
Introduction: Menstruation is experienced by most girls and women across the world and it has been stigmatized across most cultures and religions. Negative attitude towards menstruation seems to be a result of socio-historical processes and social relations. Therefore, approaching this issue should be encouraged by a desire to change. Purpose: The purpose of this diploma thesis is to research where stigma towards menstruation is coming from and to find out whether it is still present. Our goal is to indicate a method for »bridging« / overcoming this stigma so that menstruation will be looked at without prejudices. Methods: We used a descriptive method of work. We were collecting literature from May 2015 to February 2017 and gathered 21 sources in English language and 3 in Slovene. For our search we used databases CINAHL, Medline, SocINDEX and Co-operative Online Bibliographic System & Services – COBISS.SI namely in Ljubljana City Library – Library Šiška. 11 chosen articles were included in analysis and synthesis of answers on research questions. Results: Term stigma that was already used by the ancient Greeks tells us that stigma originates from differences, and the acquired response to these differences is fear. Menstruation is more of a hidden stigma and it is characterised by three major taboos: taboo of concealment, activity taboo and communication taboo. Science, religion, culture, socio-economic status, the media etc. all of these often contribute to menstrual stigma. This has a major impact on the health of women, their sexuality, social status and well-being. In order for women to accept themselves every day of the month, there should be a change of cultural view on menstruation and also women themselves must take over the control of how they experience and perceive menstruation. It is very important to educate girls about menstruation through authoritative, technical and embodied knowledge. Here healthcare professionals play an important role, as they are directly or indirectly involved in all three ways of transfering this knowledge. Discussion and conclusion: Prejudices or negative attitude towards menstruation, fear that provokes emotional response of disgust and aversion, concealment, restriction, shame of being discovered, unacceptable speech, etc. All of these are walls that prevent menstruation from being accepted as perfectly normal and as a desired monthly event which indicates health and not disease. For such a goal to be achieved, an active contribution from everyone is required. It may not be possible to remove all prejudices, but what is important is to remove those which discredit, destroy the reputation of an individual and lead to stigma. Menstruation without such prejudices is not utopia but the future.

Keywords:fear, shame, taboo, women's health, menstruation

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