Medical cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant which can improve the quality of life for many patients because the content of cannabinoids and other substances that affect health. The main cannabinoids in cannabis are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), which are synthesized in glandular trihomes. Cannabinoids work through the endocannabinoid system in humans. Δ9THC is a psychoactive substance that affects appetite, reduces nausea, acts against pain and stimulates the immune system. CBD, in addition to the therapeutic effects, reduces adverse effects of Δ9THC. Due to the increasing use of cannabis in medicine, the goal is to acquire plants with different cannabinoid contents and to achieve the highest possible yields in cannabinoids extractions. The use of biotechnological methods and the development of new protocols for successful storage, micropropagation, gene transformation, plant regeneration lead to more efficient breeding of medical cannabis.