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Obdobje od presušitve do ponovne obrejitve krav molznic z vidika prireje mleka in zdravja živali
Jagodic, Metod (Author), Klopčič, Marija (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Cilj vsakega rejca, ki redi visoko-produktivne krave molznice je, da mu bodo krave v življenjski dobi dale čim več kakovostnega mleka in čim večje število zdravih potomcev primernih za pleme oziroma za pitanje. Za doseganje teh ciljev mora rejec vso skrb nameniti vzreji telet že od rojstva dalje, saj se tu začne vzreja krav jutrišnjega dne. Zelo pomemben del doseganja teh ciljev je pravilna vzreja plemenskih telic in kasneje presušenih krav. Kravo je najboljše presušiti 60 dni pred porodom. Kasnejše presuševanje v precejšnji meri vpliva na mlečnost v naslednji laktaciji in na slabšo kakovost kolostruma. Pri kravah, ki imajo manj kot 25 kg mleka, ob presušitvi v vime apliciramo antibiotik in se take krave ne molze več. Krave z več kot 25 kg mleka pa presušimo tako, da jim že 14 dni pred predvideno presušitvijo zmanjšujemo krmila in jih molzemo samo enkrat dnevno. Že v dobi presušitve lahko vplivamo na potek poroda in na uspešnost naslednje obrejitve. Če kravo pravilno presušimo in jo tudi pravilno krmimo, jo dovolj zgodaj pred porodom začnemo ovimljati in imamo ves čas uravnotežen krmni obrok, bomo imeli manjšo verjetnost, da se bodo po porodu pojavljali problemi z zaostajanjem posteljice oziroma poporodnimi mrzlicami. Porod ob nepravilnem ravnanju z brejo kravo lahko spremljajo težave že v času samega poroda, kot tudi po porodu. Če se poroda ne lotimo strokovno in s previdnostjo, lahko izgubimo tako kravo kot teleta. Ko kravo po telitvi ponovno semenimo, je verjetnost za pojav reprodukcijskih motenj veliko večja pri tistih kravah, ki so imele težke telitve in zaplete ob telitvi, kot pri kravah kjer teh problemov ni bilo.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:govedoreja, govedo, krave, molznice, presušitev, telitev, obrejitev, prireja mleka, zdravje živali
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:3925128 Link is opened in a new window
Views:747
Downloads:284
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:TRANSITION COW PERIOD FROM THE POINT OF MILK PRODUTION AND ANIMAL HEALTH
Abstract:
The aim of every breeder of high-yielding dairy cows is to breed cows that will, within their lifetime, produce as much quality milk as possible and as many healthy offspring to either for breeding or for fattening. To achieve these goals the breeder should take great care of raising calves from their birth onwards as it is there that the breeding of future cows begins. An important part of this process is proper care of bred heifers and later dried-off cows. The best results are achieved with cows dried off sixty days before calving. Drying-off at a later stage considerably influences milk production in the next lactation and results in a worse colostrum quality. Cows producing less than 25 kg of milk can be dried off by applying an antibiotic in the udder and stopped with milking. Cows producing more than 25 kg of milk are dried off by reduction of concentrate two weeks before the drying off is due and by milking them once daily. During the drying-off period, the breeder can already influence the calving process and the success of the next pregnancy. If the cow is correctly dried off and fed a balanced feed ratio during dry-off period then is less probable that after the calving the cow suffers from placental retention or milk fever. Incorrect handling of the pregnant cow can lead to complications accompanying the birth or following it. If the calving is not attended to professionally and with care, both the cow and the calf can be lost. When the cow is inseminated following the calving, reproductive disorders are more likely to appear in cows that have had difficult calving and complications around calving than at cows where these problems were net present.

Keywords:cattle production, dairy cows, drying off, calving, pregnancy, transition period, milk production, animal health

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