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Pravna ureditev umetne prekinitve nosečnosti
Novak, Anja (Author), Žnidaršič Skubic, Viktorija (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Tematika umetne prekinitve nosečnosti že od nekdaj velja za etično, moralno, politično, sociološko, versko in pravno kontroverzno. To so eni od odločilnih razlogov, da imamo po svetu toliko različnih pravnih ureditev glede dovoljenosti izvedbe posega umetne prekinitve nosečnosti. Večina zakonodajnih ureditev glede umetne prekinitve nosečnosti med seboj kombinira sistem, ko se ženska za poseg odloči sama in brez navajanja razlogov, ter sistem dovoljevanja umetne prekinitve nosečnosti, če so podane indikacije. V Sloveniji je nosečnost do določenega časa dovoljeno prekiniti zaradi svobodne volje ženske, ki si otroka ne želi, po poteku tega časa pa je poseg dovoljen le iz določenih razlogov, ki jih presojajo posebne komisije. Nasprotje temu sta na primer ureditvi na Poljskem in Irskem, ki ženski v zelo omejenih primerih dajeta pravico do umetne prekinitve nosečnosti. Države večkrat zavzamejo stališče glede umetne prekinitve nosečnosti z vidika pravnega statusa zarodka. Pomembno je namreč, ali prevladuje »pro-choice« prepričanje, ki ženski daje svobodo glede odločanja o usodi zarodka ali pa »pro-life« prepričanje, ki varuje življenje zarodka in ga obravnava kot človeka, kar pomeni, da ženska, ki ga nosi, nima odločilne vloge pri odločanju o njegovi usodi. Tudi pri pregledu sodne prakse Evropskega sodišča za človekove pravice lahko vidimo neodločnost glede omenjene tematike, saj po mnenju le-tega Evropska konvencija za človekove pravice in svoboščine daje državam glede teh vprašanj svobodo pri reguliranju področja umetne prekinitve nosečnosti. V povezavi z nekaterimi restriktivnimi zakonodajami je opazen trend naraščanja števila žensk, ki poseg opravijo v tujini (razvoj t. i. »zdravstvenega turizma« oziroma bolj natančno »abortivnega turizma«) ali pa na ilegalen način, da bi se izognile kazni, ki je za takšen poseg zagrožena z nacionalno zakonodajo.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:umetna prekinitev nosečnosti, zarodek, ugovor vesti, človekove pravice, Evropska konvencija za človekove pravice, Evropsko sodišče za človekove pravice, zdravstveni turizem, abortivni turizem
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:15668049 Link is opened in a new window
Views:688
Downloads:525
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Legal regulation of artificial termination of pregnancy
Abstract:
The topic of artificial termination of pregnancy, more commonly known as abortion, has always been one of ethical, moral, political, sociological, religious and legal controversy. This is one of the decisive reasons why we have so many different legal arrangements regarding the acceptability of carrying out abortions around the world. Most legislations combine the system, where a woman decides to intervene alone, without giving any reason and the system of allowing abortion when indications are present. Slovenia has a system where the pregnancy until a specified time may be terminated due to the free will of a woman who does not want a child, after the expiration of this time, the interference is permitted only for certain reasons, which are assessed by a special commission. On the other hand legislation in Poland and Ireland is quite the opposite of this and gives the woman a very limited few reasons when termination of pregnancy is allowed. The states often regulate abortion from the standpoint of the fetus. It is important whether “pro-choice" beliefs are respected, which gives women the freedom to decide on the fetus, or "pro-life" beliefs, which protects the life of the fetus, which is treated as a human being, which further means that the woman carrying the fetus has no say regarding its fate. When reviewing the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights a certain hesitation on these topics can be observed, as the Court finds that the European Convention on Human Rights and Liberties leaves the member states room for discretion. In conjunction with restrictive legislation, a growing number of women who choose to have a procedure performed abroad can be noticed (leading to development of so-called "medical tourism" or “abortion tourism”) or through illegal channels in order to avoid punishment that is prescribed for abortion by local statues in their home country.

Keywords:artificial termination of pregnancy, fetus, conscientious objection, human rights, the European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, medical tourism, abortion tourism

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