Introduction: Vasoconstriction of long leg arteries due to atherosclerosis (Peripheral Artery Disease, “PAD”) may cause numerous complications from occasional limping, feeling pain at rest or on exertion (intermittent claudication) in some cases the part of leg affected with poor blood circulation may even die off (limb ischemia). Therefore, it is of crucial importance to provide timely medical treatment, whether by conservative or invasive surgical methods. The larger vasoconstrictions require invasive surgical treatment, one of such methods is called thromboendoarterectomy. Purpose: The purpose of diploma work is to present on the theoretical level causes, risk factors, consequences of PAD treatment possibilities, and to bring to light the role of a nurse during care of patients after surgery in an intensive nursing care unit. Methods: The descriptive method of work was developed with scientific literature overviewed in both the Slovenian and English language, published between the periods from 2006 to 2016. A search was carried out in national catalogue database at COBIB.SI, MEDLINE and CINAHL. Discussion and conclusion: The surgical treatment of leg srteries constriction by thromboendoarterectomy is an invasive procedure associated with the risk of developing a number of post-operative complication. After surgery patients are admitted to an intensive nursing care unit. Timely identification and proper response to the first indicators of complications improve the treatment outcomes and contribute to the quality of patient rehabilitation. In the foreground is monitoring the parameters of neural and hemodynamic conditions of a patient, assessment, ease of pain and monitoring the state of incision and drains. After surgery, a patient needs individually adjusted assistance and support in regards to performance of basic life activities. A nurse has a distinguished role in the treatment itself, moreover he/she motivates a patient and integrates him/her in the nursing care process and by this they contribute to improved treatment results. The Henderson’s fourteen basic life activities are guidelines to which a nurse should pay attention to while providing nursing care. During care, a nurse shall educate a patient of the nature of PAD to avoid further exposure to risk factors and to start once again to live a full and healthy life.