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Vadbeni programi za preventivo pred poškodbami spodnjega uda pri dekletih v dvoranskih ekipnih športih : pregled literature
Jović, Lana (Author), Divjak, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Uvod: Dekleta se od svojih moških vrstnikov razlikujejo tako v anatomskih kot tudi fizioloških lastnostih, te razlike pa so hkrati tudi dejavniki tveganja za poškodbe. Pri dekletih med 15 in 19 letom je incidenca nekontakne poškodbe sprednje križne vezi vsaj dvakrat višja kot pri odraslih športnicah in 2,6 krat višja kot pri dečkih iste starostne skupine. Znatno večja je tudi incidenca ostalih poškodb kolena in gležnja. Incidenca poškodb je odvisna od vsakega posameznega športa, pri vseh pa najmanj tretjina mladih igralk letno doživi vsaj eno poškodbo. Poškodbe kolena in gležnja so povezane z razvojem degenerativnega osteoartritisa v prizadetih sklepih, pri mladih športnicah lahko vplivajo na rast in razvoj, poškodbe so prav tako pogost razlog za opustitev športa in gibanja, kar negativno vpliva na kvaliteto življenja. Za zmanjšanje incidence poškodb in njihovih posledic so se izoblikovali preventivni vadbeni programi, ki temeljijo na zmanjšanju dejavnikov tveganja za nastanek poškodb. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je proučiti strokovno literaturo o različnih vadbenih programih kot strategiji za prevencijo poškodb spodnjega uda pri dekletih v dvoranskih ekipnih športih. Metode dela: V diplomskem delu je uporabljena deskriptivna metoda dela, ki temelji na pregledu literature. Iskanje literature je potekalo preko elektronskih baz podatkov Cobiss, PEDro, Cinahl, Cochrane in Medline. Iskali smo raziskave v italijanskem, slovenskem in angleškem jeziku, izdane med leti 2000 in 2016. Analiziranih je bilo 55 raziskav, 6 smo jih vključili v diplomsko delo. Rezultati: Rezultati so pokazali, da vadbeni programi za preventivo pred poškodbami spodnjega uda vplivajo na izboljšanje dinamičnega in statičnega ravnotežja, izboljšajo mehaniko skokov in pristankov, zmanjšajo dejavnike tveganja za poškodbe in s tem prispevajo k nižji incidenci poškodb. Razprava in sklep: Na podlagi analizirane literature smo ugotovili, da je najbolj uspešen pristop k preventivi pred poškodbami multidisciplinaren pristop, ki v programu vključuje elemente, ki ciljajo na zmanjšanje vseh dejavnikov tveganja za nastanek poškodb. Zaradi vse večje vključenosti deklet v šport in vse višjega nivoja igre, ki so mu mlada dekleta izpostavljena, je pomembno, da se v letni program treniranja vključi tudi program vadbe za preventivo pred poškodbami.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:preventivni programi, poškodbe spodnjega uda, dekleta, dvoranski športi, zvin gležnja, poškodba ACL
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:5270123 Link is opened in a new window
Views:614
Downloads:417
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Training programs for prevention of lower limb injuries in girls in indoor team sports : literature review
Abstract:
Introduction: Girls differentiate from their male counterparts in anatomical and physiological characteristics, which are at the same time risk factors for injuries. The incidence of injury of anterior cruciate ligament is at least 2 times higher among girls between ages 15 and 19 than in adult female athletes, and 2.6 times higher than among boys in the same age group. The incidence of other types of knee and ankle injuries is also significantly higher. The incidence of injuries depends on the sport in question; in all of them at least a third of the athletes injures themselves at least once a year. Knee and ankle injuries are connected to the development of degenerative osteoarthritis in affected joints and can affect growth and development of young athletes; injuries can cause abandonment of sport and exercise, which has a negative impact on the quality of life. Preventive exercise regimens were developed for lowering the number of injuries and their consequences. Those exercises are based on reduction of risk factors for injuries. Purpose: The purpose of the bachelor’s thesis is to review professional literature written about varied exercise regimens as a strategy to prevent injuries to lower extremities in girls playing indoor team sports. Methods: The descriptive method of work used in this bachelor’s thesis is based on the review of the literature. The literature was found with the help of electronic databases Cobiss, PEDro, Cinahl, Cochrane and Medline. We searched for studies in Slovenian, Italian and English that were published between the years 2000 and 2016. Out of 55 studies analyzed, six have been included into this bachelor’s thesis. Results: The results have shown that exercise regimens for prevention of injuries to lower extremities improve dynamic and static balance and the mechanics of jumps and landings, and reduce risk factors for injuries, thus contributing to lower injury incidence. Discussion and conclusion: Based on the analyzed literature it was concluded that the most successful approach to preventing injuries is the multidisciplinary one. It combines elements that aim to diminish all injury risk factors. Because of increasing number of girls practicing sports and the ever raising level of play the girls are exposed to it is important that the yearly training program includes also an injury prevention exercise regimen.

Keywords:preventive programs, lower limb injury, girls, indoor sports, ankle sprain, ACL injury

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