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Prenos hipoteke na novega upnika
Popović, Ines (Author), Vlahek, Ana (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Hipoteka kot zastavna pravica na nepremičnini predstavlja eno izmed najučinkovitejših in najpogostejših oblik zavarovanja terjatev predvsem zaradi dejstva, ker je tržna vrednost nepremičnin že v naprej znana ter dokaj stabilna. Hipoteka omogoča in upniku daje upravičenje, da se v primeru neplačila ob zapadlosti terjatve poplača iz vrednosti zastavljene nepremičnine, in sicer pred drugimi upniki zastavitelja. Hipoteka je akcesorna pravica in sledi pravni usodi zavarovane terjatve. Z njo je torej mogoče razpolagati in jo prenašati na novega upnika zgolj v primeru razpolaganja s terjatvijo, ki je obremenjena s hipoteko. Ker nima lastne prometnosti, se torej prenaša skupaj s terjatvijo. Terjatev se prenaša s pogodbo obligacijskega prava, tj. pogodba o odstopu terjatve ali cesija, lahko pa se prenese tudi s subrogacijo. Obstaja pa tudi možnost prenosa terjatve brez prenosa hipoteke, v kolikor se prevzemnik in odstopnik terjatve to dogovorita. Izjemo pri prenosu hipoteke predstavlja prenos maksimalne hipoteke, ki varuje celotno upniško-dolžniško razmerje in ne zgolj posamezne terjatve. V primeru prenosa terjatve, ki je obremenjena z maksimalno hipoteko, se maksimalna hipoteka ne prenese. Z odkupom terjatve, zavarovane z maksimalno hipoteko, prevzemnik terjatve sprejme veliko tveganje, da je odkupil terjatev brez zavarovanja. Avstrijski in hrvaški pravni sistem za razliko od slovenskega pravnega sistema poznata institut konverzije maksimalne hipoteke v fiksno hipoteko. Obstoji pa tudi izjema od pravila prenosa maksimalne hipoteke, in sicer v primeru prenosa terjatev na DUTB. Le-ta namreč uživa poseben status in v primeru prenosa zavarovane terjatve na DUTB se nanjo prenesejo tudi vsa zavarovanja, vključno z maksimalno hipoteko. Hipoteka kot akcesorna pravica preide na novega upnika že s samim prenosom terjatve. To pomeni, da vpis v zemljiško knjigo ne predstavlja konstitutivnega učinka, temveč zgolj publicitetni učinek. Takšno je tudi stališče Vrhovnega sodišča Republike Slovenije. Ureditev glede učinkovanja prenosa hipoteke, ki jo pozna slovenski pravni sistem, je značilna tudi za avstrijski, nemški in hrvaški pravni sistem.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:hipoteka, maksimalna hipoteka, zavarovana terjatev, cesija, prenos hipoteke, učinkovanje prenosa hipoteke.
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:15596881 Link is opened in a new window
Views:2937
Downloads:1187
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The transfer of a mortgage on the new creditor
Abstract:
A mortgage is a lien on a real estate, represents one of the most effective and most common forms of collateral / claims insurance; mainly due to the fact that the market value of real estate is already known in advance and it’s fairly stable. A mortgage allows a creditor/beneficiary a right, in the event of non-payment of the claim at expiration date, to be repaid from the value of the pledged real estate prior to other creditors of the mortgagor. A mortgage is an ancillary right, which follows the legal fate of the secured claim. The mortgage must therefore be disposed of, and transferred to a new creditor, only in the case of a disposition of the claim that is secured by mortgage. Therefore mortgage can only be transferred together with the claim. The claim shall be transferred with the contract law of obligations i.e. agreement on an assignment or cession, but it can also be transferred by subrogation. It is possible to relocate "bare claim" without the simultaneous transfer of the mortgages, but only in case if the transferee and the transferor claims agree. Except for the transfer of a mortgage is the transfer of the maximum mortgage that protects the entire creditor-debtor relationship and not merely the individual claim. In the case of transfer of claims, which are secured with the maximum mortgage, the maximum mortgage cannot be transferred. With the purchase of receivables/claims insured with a maximum mortgage receivable acquirer takes huge risks of purchasing the receivables without collateral. Austrians and Croatians, unlike Slovenians, know institute of conversion of the maximum mortgage into a fixed mortgage. There is the exception to the rule of transferring a maximum mortgage in the case of transfer of receivables to DUTB. DUTB enjoys a special status and in the case of a transfer of the claim secured with maximum mortgage on DUTB, all collaterals are transferred to DUTB including maximum mortgage. Mortgage and ancillary rights are passed to the new creditor by the simple transfer of assets. This means that the enrolment in the land register does not represent a constitutive but only publicity effect. This is also the point of view of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia. The rules governing the effect of the transfer of mortgages, known by the Slovenian legislation is also characterized by the Austrian, German and Croatian legal system.

Keywords:mortgage, maximum mortgage, insurance claims, cession, mortgage transfer, the effect of the transfer of mortgages

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