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Varstvo osebnih podatkov v nevarnem pristanu EU in ZDA
Borec, Veronika (Author), Zagorc, Saša (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Pravni ureditvi EU in ZDA se na področju varstva osebnih podatkov močno razlikujeta. Medtem ko je v EU vzpostavljen eden najbolj zaščitnih sistemov, kjer pravica do varstva osebnih podatkov predstavlja eno izmed temeljnih pravic, je v ZD1A varstvo osebnih podatkov še vedno bolj ali manj neurejeno področje. Kljub vsemu pa sta njuni gospodarstvi povezani do te mere, da ob vedno večji uporabi storitev svetovnega spleta brez čezatlantskih prenosov osebnih podatkov preprosto ne gre. Zato obstajajo različni mehanizmi, kot so sklepi o ustreznosti, standardne pogodbene klavzule in zavezujoča poslovna pravila, ki se osebnim podatkom iz EU trudijo zagotoviti ustrezno raven varstva tudi v ZDA. Do nedavnega se je daleč največ podatkov prenašalo na podlagi sheme Varnega pristana, potrjene z odločbo o ustreznosti iz leta 2000, a 15 let kasneje je Sodišče Evropske unije v zadevi Maximillian Schrems proti Data Protection Commissioner to shemo spoznalo kot neustrezno in odločbo razveljavilo. Sodba je predstavljala pričakovan odgovor na razkritja Edwarda Snowdena o programih množičnega nadzora, ki jih uporabljajo ameriške obveščevalne službe, ki lahko na tak način neovirano dostopajo do osebnih podatkov iz EU, prenešenih v podjetja na območju ZDA. Shemo Varnega pristana je tako nadomestil nov sporazum, imenovan Zasebnostni ščit EU-ZDA. Po eni strani ta sporazum odraža velik napredek v smeri učinkovitega varstva osebnih podatkov, po drugi pa ameriškim obveščevalnim službam z določenimi omejitvami še zmeraj dopušča dostop do osebnih podatkov iz EU. Če se bo Zasebnostni ščit EU-ZDA uveljavil tudi v praksi, bo pokazal čas. Prva izziva bosta nedvomno presoja njegove ustreznosti s strani enega izmed sodišč EU ter začetek veljavnosti zakonodajne reforme EU na področju varstva osebnih podatkov.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:Varstvo osebnih podatkov, čezatlantski prenos osebnih podatkov, Direktiva 95/46/ES, Varni pristan, Odločba 2000/520/ES, Snowden, Schrems, Zasebnostni ščit, Sklep 2016/1250, Uredba 2016/679
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:15492177 This link opens in a new window
Views:1376
Downloads:582
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Data Protection in the Unsafe Harbour of EU and USA
Abstract:
Approaches to data protection in the legal orders of EU and US are significantly different from each other. EU has established one of the most protective legal data protection systems in the world where right to data protection is considered to be a fundamental right whereas in the US data protection is still barely even regulated. However, its economies are, especially with increased use of internet services, connected to the point where transatlantic data transfers represent an everyday necessity. Therefore there are many mechanisms established, such as adequacy decisions, standard contract clauses and binding corporate rules, that seeks to enable an adequate level of data protection in the US. Until recently, the largest amount of data had been transferred on the basis of Safe Harbour framework, established by adequacy decision in 2000, which was 15 years later declared invalid by European Court of Justice in the case Maximillian Schrems v Data Protection Commissioner. The judgment was a response to the Edward Snowden’s revelation regarding mass surveillance programs, used by American intelligence services. The latter had an unlimited access to EU data, transferred to and stored in companies, located within the US territory. Therefore Safe Harbour framework was replaced by new agreement called EU-US Privacy Shield. On one hand, this agreement reflects a massive progress towards more effective data protection. On the other hand however, under certain limitations American intelligence services are still able to access the EU data. The effectiveness of the EU-US Privacy Shield in practice can be determined only by time. First challenges will undoubtedly be judicial review by one of the EU courts and the compliance with the legislation of EU data protection reform.

Keywords:Data protection, transatlantic data transfer, Directive 95/46/EC, Safe Harbour, Decision 2000/520/EC, Snowden, Schrems, Privacy Shield, Decision 2016/1250, Regulation 2016/679

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