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Uporaba torakolumbosakralne ortoze pri konzervativnem zdravljenju hrbtenice
Draksler, Anja (Author), Horvat, Josip (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Uvod: Hrbtenica nam omogoča gibanje telesa in pokončno držo. Bolečino v hrbtenici je vsak izmed nas doživel najmanj enkrat v življenju. Torakolumbosakralne ortoze so vrsta spinalnih ortoz, ki se pri zdravljenju hrbtenice uporabljajo kot imobilizacija pri konzervativnem zdravljenju poškodb, degenerativnih bolezni in kot podpora po operativnih posegih. Degenerativne bolezni hrbtenice (predvsem hernija medvretenčne ploščice) so ena izmed najpogostejših težav v ledvenem delu hrbtenice, ki prizadene veliko ljudi. Spondiloliza in spondilolisteza se največkrat pojavita pri otrocih in mladostnikih, ki so športno preveč aktivni. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je ugotoviti, kje in kdaj se uporabljajo torakolumbosakralne ortoze in kako so športne aktivnosti povezane z bolečinami v hrbtenici. Metode dela: V diplomskem delu je bila uporabljena deskriptivna metoda s pregledom literature. Vključene so bile tudi naslednje strokovne baze podatkov: MEDLINE, DiKuL, Google učenjak, PubMed, Cobiss in ScienceDirect. V diplomsko delo je bila vključena literatura izdana med letom 1990 in 2016, v angleškem, slovenskem in hrvaškem jeziku. Rezultati: Torakolumbosakralne ortoze se največkrat predpisujejo takrat, kadar so prisotne deformacije hrbtenice. K poškodbam hrbtenice pripomorejo tudi različne športne aktivnosti, pri katerih prihaja do prekomernih obremenitev hrbtenice. Največ poškodb terja gimnastika zaradi specifičnih gibov, ki so prisotni pri izvajanju. Razprava in zaključek: Najpogosteje je za zdravljenje deformacij hrbtenice predpisana rigidna (trda), po modelu narejena torakolumbosakralna ortoza. Pri poškodbah hrbtenice pa se predpisujejo tako rigidne, kot mehke TLSO. Večje in boljše učinke nudijo rigidne ortoze. Največ poškodb pri športnih aktivnosti se lahko opazi pri otrocih in mladostnikih. Ob pravilnem predpisu ortoze in upoštevanju navodil nošenja, so rezultati zdravljenja v velikih primerih pozitivni. Če konzervativno zdravljenje ni mogoče, so poškodbe ali deformacije prehude, je potrebna operacija. Pomembna je individualna obravnava vsakega pacienta, da je odločitev za predpis vrste ortoze pravilna. Izdelava torakolumbosakralnih ortoz se danes še vedno izvaja s pomočjo mavčnega odlitka pacienta. Ortotiki in protetiki se vse več poslužujejo tudi uporabe računalniško podprtega konstruiranja in računalniško podprte proizvodnje.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:Hrbtenica, spinalne ortoze, športne poškodbe, gimnastika, spondiloliza.
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2016
COBISS.SI-ID:5194347 Link is opened in a new window
Views:1030
Downloads:839
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The use of thoracolumbosacral orthosis in conservative treatment of the spine
Abstract:
Background: Spine allows movement of the body and upright body posture. Every one of us has experienced back pain at least once in a lifetime. Thoracolumbosacral orthoses are types of spinal braces used for immobilisation in conservative treatment of the spine in case of injury, degenerative diseases or as an addition to post-operative treatment. Degenerative diseases of the spine (especially spinal disc herniation) are one of the most common medical conditions in lumbar spine and it affects many people. Spondylosis and spondylolisthesis usually occurs with children and adolescents that are too active in sports. Objective: The purpose of the thesis was to determine the use of thoracolumbosacral orthoses and how sports injuries are related with back pain. Methods: The chosen descriptive method of work was systematic literature review. Literature was found on following web databases: MEDLINE, DiKuL, Google učenjak, PubMed, Cobiss and ScienceDirect and was published between 1990 and 2016 in English, Slovenian and Croatian language. Results: Thoracolumbosacral orthoses are usually prescribed when deformity of the spine is shown. Sports activities can cause injuries of the spine, because they put a lot of pressure on the spine. Most of the injuries in gymnastics occur because of the specific movement during the routine. Conclusions: Rigid, custom-made thoracolumbosacral orthosis is most commonly prescribed for spinal deformities. On the other hand both rigid and soft thoracolumbosacral orthoses are prescribed for spinal injuries. Results have shown that rigid orthoses have better effect. Incidence of sports injuries is bigger among children and adolescents. If the right orthosis is prescribed and the patient follows the instructions, the results of treatment are usually very good. If conservative treatment is not possible because the injury or deformity is to severe, surgery is required. Individual treatment is important for prescribing the correct and appropriate orthosis for the patient. Plaster cast are still used to make thoracolumbosacral orthoses. In addition orthotists and prosthetists use computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing system in the making of thoracolumbosacral orthoses.

Keywords:Spine, spinal orthoses, sports injuries, gymnastics, spondylosis.

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