Background: Spine allows movement of the body and upright body posture. Every one of us has experienced back pain at least once in a lifetime. Thoracolumbosacral orthoses are types of spinal braces used for immobilisation in conservative treatment of the spine in case of injury, degenerative diseases or as an addition to post-operative treatment. Degenerative diseases of the spine (especially spinal disc herniation) are one of the most common medical conditions in lumbar spine and it affects many people. Spondylosis and spondylolisthesis usually occurs with children and adolescents that are too active in sports. Objective: The purpose of the thesis was to determine the use of thoracolumbosacral orthoses and how sports injuries are related with back pain. Methods: The chosen descriptive method of work was systematic literature review. Literature was found on following web databases: MEDLINE, DiKuL, Google učenjak, PubMed, Cobiss and ScienceDirect and was published between 1990 and 2016 in English, Slovenian and Croatian language. Results: Thoracolumbosacral orthoses are usually prescribed when deformity of the spine is shown. Sports activities can cause injuries of the spine, because they put a lot of pressure on the spine. Most of the injuries in gymnastics occur because of the specific movement during the routine. Conclusions: Rigid, custom-made thoracolumbosacral orthosis is most commonly prescribed for spinal deformities. On the other hand both rigid and soft thoracolumbosacral orthoses are prescribed for spinal injuries. Results have shown that rigid orthoses have better effect. Incidence of sports injuries is bigger among children and adolescents. If the right orthosis is prescribed and the patient follows the instructions, the results of treatment are usually very good. If conservative treatment is not possible because the injury or deformity is to severe, surgery is required. Individual treatment is important for prescribing the correct and appropriate orthosis for the patient. Plaster cast are still used to make thoracolumbosacral orthoses. In addition orthotists and prosthetists use computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing system in the making of thoracolumbosacral orthoses.