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Vzpostavitev metode za določanje bioreceptivnosti naravnega kamna : diplomsko delo
Mesojedec, Mojca (Author), Dolenec, Matej (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Mauko Pranjić, Alenka (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
Biodeterioracija (razkroj kamnitih površin zaradi delovanja organizmov) v modernih zgradbah in v kulturni dediščini je problem, ki vpliva ne le na estetski videz kamna, vendar tudi spremeni njegovo funkcionalno delovanje (npr. zaščita stavbe) in ima posredno ekonomske vplive (npr. stroški čiščenja, stroški zaščite z impregnacijskimi sredstvi, stroški obnove). Bioreceptivnost je dovzetnost materiala za naselitev živih organizmov. Metode za določanje bioreceptivnosti običajno temeljijo na količinski opredelitvi razrasta nanešenih organizmov na izpostavljeno površino v opredeljenem času. V diplomskem delu smo uvedli metodo za določanje bioreceptivnosti na osnovi slikovne analize posnetkov avtofluorescirajočih pionirskih mikroorganizmov z mikroskopom za opazovanje fluorescence. Metoda je v prvi vrsti namenjena ocenjevanju vpliva intrinzičnih, kamnini lastnih, lastnosti (npr. mineralna sestava, poroznost,... ) na njeno občutljivost na rast organizmov. Bioreceptivnost smo določali na petnajstih pogosto uporabljenih komercialnih tipih naravnega kamna za gradbene namene v Sloveniji. Mineralna sestava, petrografske in mikrostrukturne lastnosti so bile določene s pomočjo optične mikroskopije in ostalih komplementarnih metod (vpijanje vode zaradi kapilarnega dviga, porozimetrija z živim srebrom). Vzorci kamnin so bili inokulirani (nanešeni) z naslednjimi vrstami fototrofnih organizmov: Chlorella vulgaris, Chroococcus minutus in Pseudococcomyxa sp. ter le-ti izpostavljeni v rastno komoro za štiri tedne. Za najbolj primeren mikroorganizem za laboratorijski poskus bioreceptivnosti se je izkazala Chlorella vulgaris zaradi najhitrejše rasti ter za štetje primerne oblike in velikosti celic. Ugotovili smo, da imajo različne kamnine različno bioreceptivnost, ki je odvisna od njihove mineralne sestave, hrapavosti in fizikalnih lastnosti kot je npr. poroznost ter jo lahko ovrednotimo v laboratorijskih pogojih. Pri površinsko suhih vzorcih je za rast mikroorganizmov pomembna stalna prisotnost vode, ki je zagotovljena z absorpcijo vode skozi sistem kapilarnih por (pore s premerom manj kot 0,1 %m). Največja hitrost prirasti celic mikroorganizmov je bila zabeležena na peščenjaku in tufu, ki so bolj porozni in je kapilarni dvig vode najmočnejši. Ugotavljamo, da ima pri površinsko suhih vzorcih največji vpliv a) omočljivost površine, ki je neposredno odvisna od hrapavosti površine in kemijske sestave ter b) tip por (kamnine s kapilarnimi porami preprečujejo izsuševanje in omogočajo daljšo prisotnost vode na površini kamnine). Rezultati preiskav analiz bioreceptivnosti z vodonasičenih vzorcev kažejo na večji vpliv mineralne sestave kamnine. Pri z vodonasičenih vzorcih so rezultati prirasta mikroorganizmov višji. Zaključimo lahko, da je razpoložljivost vode glavni dejavnik rasti celic.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:bioreceptivnost, naravni kamen, fluorescenčna mikroskopija, rastna komora, razvoj metode
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:NTF - Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering
Year:2016
Publisher:[M. Mesojedec]
Number of pages:XV, 88 f.
UDC:55
COBISS.SI-ID:1275230 Link is opened in a new window
Views:671
Downloads:277
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The establishment of method for the determination of bioreceptivity of natural stone
Abstract:
Biodeterioration (disintegration of stone surfaces due to organism activity) in modern structures and cultural heritage is a problem that does not only affect the aesthetic appearance of stone elements but also changes their functionality (e.g. building protection) and indirectly influences the economy (e.g. cleaning costs, costs of impregnation agents protection, costs of renewal). Bioreceptivity is a material's susceptibility for the population of living organisms. Methods for bioreceptivity determination are usually based on a quantification of a grown microbiological mass on an exposed stone surface in a determined time. In this thesis a method for bioreceptivity determination is implemented based on an image analysis of autofluorescing pioneer organisms with a fluorescent microscope. The method is primarily meant for assessing the direct influence of a rock's own intrinsic features (e.g. mineral agents, porosity, etc.) on its sensitivity for organism growth. Bioreceptivity has been determined on fifteen frequently used commercial types of natural stone for construction purposes in Slovenia. Mineral composition, petrographic and microstructural features were determined with the help of optical microscopy and other complementary methods (water absorption due to capillary rise, porosimetry with mercury). The rock samples were inoculated (spread) with the following phototrophic organisms: Chlorella vulgaris, Chroococcus minutus and Pseudococcomyxa sp. and exposed to a growth chamber for four weeks. Due to the fastest growth and for counting cells of a proper form and size, the most appropriate microorganism for the laboratory experiment of bioreceptivity proved to be Chlorella vulgaris. It was established that different rocks have a different bioreceptivity which depends on their mineral composition, roughness and physical features, e.g. porosity, and can be assessed in laboratory conditions. In case of dry surface samples, it is important to have a permanent water supply which is provided by the water absorption through the capillary pore system (pores which are less than 0,1 micrometer in diameter). The largest cell growth was registered on sandstone and tuff which are more porous and where the capillary rise is the strongest. It has been established that in case of dry surface samples a) the soaking of the surface, which depends directly on surface roughness and chemical composition, and b) the pore type (rocks with capillary pores prevent drainage and enable a longer water presence on the rock's surface) have the greatest influence. The results of bioreceptivity analysis examinations of water saturated samples show the prevalence of a rock's mineral composition. The growth results are higher in water saturated samples. It can be concluded that water availability is the key factor for cell growth.

Keywords:bioreceptivity, natural stone, flourescent microscopy, growth chamber, development of method

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