Primary schools are attended also by pupils with special needs. Hereto is ranged a category of children with deficiencies in their individual area of learning, and among them belong children with specific learning disabilities. A key role in education and training of pupils with specific learning disabilities bears a teacher who needs to recognize the disabilities in order to be able to perform a five steps model of help. The model provides for detecting, supporting and offering help to pupils with learning disabilities.
Among specific learning disabilities are ranked also dyslexia and dyspraxia. As it is crucial to know and understand the reasons for and the forms of appearance of said disorders, a major part of the theoretical part of current work addresses these particular aspects.
Looking for the learning inefficiency, many studies have focused on a learning environment which should be accommodated to the characteristics of an individual pupil.
In order to achieve a successful growth and progress for the pupils with dyslexia and dyspraxia, it is essential that teachers are knowledgeable about these disabilities and the ways of help for these pupils. By adequate accommodations of the learning process and by a positive attitude of the teacher, pupils with dyslexia and dyspraxia can experience achievements and enhance their self-portrait. In the diploma work the accommodations used in teaching and knowledge assessment of pupils with dyslexia and dyspraxia are presented and include a physical, didactic, curricular and social environment.
The aim of the diploma work was to find out how well are teachers knowledgeable in the characteristics of children with dyslexia and dyspraxia; do they apply accommodations to their teaching and knowledge assessing; and to offer a list of accommodations for teaching and testing of knowledge of pupils with dyslexia and dyspraxia.
In the empirical part of the diploma work the results of the research are presented that was carried out among 53 lower and upper class teachers giving lessons in regular primary schools. The questionnaire was divided into three sections and referred to pupils with dyslexia and dyspraxia: the recognition of specific learning disabilities, the accommodations provided for teaching, and the accommodations made in knowledge assessment.
The research revealed that the teachers included in the research are not well acquainted with the specific learning disabilities. Among those better recognized were the difficulties in reading and writing (dyslexia) while those moderately recognized were the specific language deficiencies.
The answers revealed a great difference in the teachers’ knowledge of specific learning disabilities. We have found that teachers of lower classes are better acquainted with the specific learning disabilities than teachers of upper classes. In comparing the abilities and disabilities of pupils with dyslexia and dyspraxia the research revealed that the teachers are better acquainted with same as regards the dyslexia than dyspraxia. In teaching the pupils with dyslexia both the lower and upper class teachers know how to adapt, however, those from lower classes know and perform more adaptations. Also, as regards the teaching of pupils with dyspraxia the research revealed that the teachers of lower classes are acquainted with more adaptations.
In the third section, the accommodations regarding knowledge assessment were searched. We found out that the lower class teachers are better acquainted with the specific knowledge assessment accommodations as regards dyslexia than the upper class teachers. Likewise, the lower class teachers were better acquainted with specific knowledge assessment accommodations as regards dyspraxia than the upper class teachers.