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SISTEMI ZA SLEDENJE POGLEDA IN NJIHOVA UPORABA V INTERAKCIJI ČLOVEK-STROJ V VOZILIH
ŽNIDAR, PRIMOŽ (Author), Sodnik, Jaka (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Sistemi za sledenje pogleda (angl. Eye tracker – ET) so v slovenskem prostoru še zelo nepoznani. Eden izmed glavnih razlogov je gotovo ta, da se omenjena tehnologija še vedno ni pojavila med končnimi uporabniki, čeprav segajo prvi začetki sledenja očem ţe v konec 19. stoletja, torej več kot 150 let nazaj, v obdobje, ko so nastajali prvi avtomobili. Pa vendar vidimo, da ima danes vsaka druţina doma vsaj eno vozilo, kar pa gotovo ne velja za naprave, ki bi sledile pogledu. To je presenetljivo, če pomislimo, da ţe vse od njenih prvih začetkov človeštvo buri misel, kako bi bilo v svetu, kjer bi le s pogledom lahko upravljali stvari okrog nas. Ne nazadnje smo sedaj priča obdobju, ko so se na trgu začele pojavljati prve naprave, katerih cena je niţja kot cena povprečnega mobilnega telefona. Ali bi sedaj končno lahko bil tudi to razlog za začetek množične uporabe te večini nepoznane tehnologije? V pričujoči magistrski nalogi se najprej posvetim zgodovini naprav za sledenje pogleda, in sicer od njenih prvih začetkov izdelave, ki so na različne načine poskušale beleţiti gibanje očesa, njihovemu razvoju vse do današnje oblike. Ţe skozi kronologijo razvoja so podane nekatere lastnosti očesa, ki so jih odkrile te prve ET-naprave. Sledi poglavje, kjer sem ţelel podati še druge lastnosti očesa, ki pomembno vplivajo na način delovanja ET-naprave in so potrebne razlage za razumevanje zmoţnosti ET-naprav. Sledi predstavitev štirih najpogosteje uporabljenih ET-tehnik, njihovega načina delovanja in uporabe ter zmoţnosti, ki jih lahko dosegajo. V nadaljevanju sem izpostavil problematiko ET-naprav, ki se uporabljajo kot komunikacijski kanal za vnos informacij v izbran sistem s pomočjo nadzorovanih premikov oči. Ker je človeško oko prvenstveno namenjeno gledanju, in ne ukazovanju, tj. nadzorovanemu gibanju oči, v tem poglavju izpostavim tipično pomanjkljivost očesa, da je njegova natančnost kazanja enaka debelini prsta in da oko ne more na neprisiljen način zagotoviti potrditve – klika. Posledično izpostavim potrebo po prilagoditvi delovanja operacijskih sistemov in aplikacij v »non-command based system«, ki se ga upravlja z nizom zveznih dogodkov, kar je bliţje naravi očesa. A ker takih sistemov trenutno na trgu še ni, predstavim še nekaj najpogostejših načinov prilagajanja ET-vmesnika za delovanje v današnjih aplikacijah in operacijskih sistemih. Vendar pa uporaba ET-naprav ni mišljena le kot alternativni vhodni kanal za miško in tipkovnico za delo z računalniki. Prvi začetki uporabe so bili namenjeni proučevanju gibanja očesa, a so ţe zelo hitro spoznali tesno povezanost s kognitivnimi procesi v človeku. Tako se je v znanstvenih krogih kmalu pojavila uporaba ET-naprav za proučevanje kognitivnih procesov. V okviru praktičnega dela magistrske naloge je bila tako izvedena integracija ET-naprave The Eye Tribe v simulator voţnje, da bi nam omogočala statistično analizo obnašanja voznika in njegovo kognitivno obremenjenost v simuliranih situacijah v prometu. Ker gre za prvo tovrstno uporabo nizkocenovne ET-naprave, sem skupaj s sodelavci laboratorija LaIT ţelel raziskati vidike njene uporabnosti. Oblikovali smo raziskovalna vprašanja o zanesljivosti delovanja, točnosti in natančnosti, velikosti območja zanimanj (AOI), ki mu naprava še lahko sledi, in seveda tudi o zmoţnostih zaznavanja pojava zoţenja vidnega polja (tunelski vid) in spremembe velikosti zenice, ko je voznik deleţen večje kognitivne obremenitve. V ta namen smo izoblikovali referenčne meritve. Izvajali smo jih v skladu z osnutkom standarda ISO 17488, v sklopu katerega smo uporabili spominski test N-nazaj, s katerim smo dosegali različne stopnje kognitivne obremenitve, ter metodo taktilni ZON, s katero smo na podlagi reakcijskih časov posredno merili kognitivno obremenjenost. Aplikativnost študije je spoznanje, da je nizkocenovna naprava The Eye Tribe, primerjalno z metodo ZON, nadvse uspešno orodje za prikaz kognitivne obremenjenosti voznika. Ob tem velja, da ni invazivna metoda in nima dodatnega vpliva na kognitivno obremenjenost voznika kot tudi nima vpliva na primarno nalogo, ki je predmet testiranja.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:naprava za sledenje pogleda, sledilnik očesnih gibov, The Eye Tribe, EyeX, simulator voţnje, kognitivna obremenitev, merjenje zenice, zoţenje vida, tunelski vid, taktilni ZON, spominska metoda N-nazaj, ISO 17488.
Work type:Master's thesis (m2)
Organization:FE - Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Year:2016
Views:691
Downloads:685
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:EYE TRACKING SYSTEMS AND THEIR USE IN HUMAN-MACHINES INTERACTION IN VEHICLES
Abstract:
In Slovenia, eye trackers are still very much unknown. Undoubtedly, one of the main reasons lies in the fact that this technology has not yet reached the final user, although the beginnings of eye tracking go back more than 150 years, to the end of the 19th century, when first automobiles were produced. Yet, these days almost every family owns at least one car, but the same cannot be claimed for eye tracking devices. This is surprising considering that since its beginnings the mankind is agitated to discover, how would it be to live in the world, in which we could control things around us using just eyes. After all we are living in an era of new devices entering the market with their prices being lower than the price of an average mobile phone. Could this finally be the reason to launch a mass usage of this technology, which is still unknown to the majority of people? The first part of this master's thesis focuses on the history of eye trackers - since the beginning of the production and the first attempts trying to record eye movements, to the development of the trackers and their current form. The chronology itself includes some eye characteristics, discovered by those first eye trackers. The subsequent chapter discusses other eye characteristics which play an important role in the working principle of eye tracking and need to be explained in order to understand the capabilities of eye trackers. The chapter is followed by the presentation of four most commonly used eye tracking techniques, their operating principles and the applicability, as well as their capabilities. Later on the master's thesis presents the problems of eye trackers being used as communication channels for entering information into a selected system through controlled eye movements. Since the human eye is primarily designed for viewing and not for giving orders, i.e. controlled eye movements, this chapter describes a typical deficiency of an eye – its precision of indicating can be compared to the thickness of a finger and it is impossible for an eye to confirm an action in an unforced manner – with a click. Consequently, the thesis emphasizes the need to adjust the functioning of operating systems and applications in accordance with »non-command based system«, manipulated with a series of continuous events which is closer to the natural behavior of an eye. However, since currently no such devices exist on the market, the thesis describes some of the most common methods of adjusting eye tracking interface in order to function in modern applications and operating systems. Still, eye trackers were not designed solely as an alternative input channel for a mouse and keyboard when working with a computer. At the beginning eye trackers were designed as a tool for investigating eye movements, but close connection with cognitive processes in humans was quickly discovered. Therefore, scientists soon started to use eye trackers to study cognitive processes. The practical part of the master's thesis includes the integration of an eye tracker The Eye Tribe into a driving simulator in order to enable a statistical analysis of a driver's behavior and his cognitive load in simulated traffic situations. Since this is the first time a low price eye tracker was used in this manner, I wanted to investigate its practical aspect in collaboration with LaIT laboratory. We have defined investigatory qualifiers regarding the reliability of operating, accuracy and precision, the size of an area of interest (AOI) the device is still capable to follow, as well as the possibilities of detecting eyesight narrowing (tunnel vision) and changes in pupil dilation when the driver is under greater cognitive load. To this end, we have drawn up reference measurements. Measurements were performed in accordance with the draft standard ISO 17488. Within the scope of this standard we have used Delayed Digit Recall in order to achieve different levels of cognitive load and tactile DRT method to indirectly measure cognitive load on the basis of reaction times. According to the study and compared to the DRT method the low-price The Eye Tribe device proved to be a successful tool for indicating cognitive stress of a driver. It is important to emphasize that this is not an invasive method and it does not additionally affect the cognitive load of a driver. Furthermore, the method does not affect the primary task which is the subject of testing.

Keywords:eye tracking device, eye tracker, The Eye Tribe, EyeX, driving stimulator, cognitive load, pupil dilation measurement, sight narrowing, tunnel vision, tactile DRT, Delayed Digital Recall, ISO 17488.

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