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Kompetence učiteljev razrednega pouka za zagotavljanje kakovosti predmeta Šport
Šlajkovec, Tina (Author), Štemberger, Vesna (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/3601/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Izredno pomembno je zavedanje, da nosi predmet šport (ŠPO) dandanes zaradi neaktivnega načina preživljanja prostega časa in izjemnih tehničnih napredkov veliko večji pomen, kot ga je imel pred dvajsetimi leti. Pomen oz. pozitivne učinke ŠPO lahko opredelimo na različnih področjih: biopsihosocialnem, osebnostnem, kognitivnem, moralnem in motivacijskem. Gibalna dejavnost je nujna za skladen razvoj otroka in njegovo zdravje. Razvoj mlajšega otroka in njegovo dojemanje sveta sta namreč zelo celostna, zato primanjkljaj na enem področju neogibno povzroči tudi primanjkljaje na drugih. Kljub temu da je gibanje ena od otrokovih osnovnih potreb, je otrok večine ustreznih gibalnih spodbud in pridobivanja športnih znanj deležen pri športno-vzgojnem procesu, zato mora biti kakovost in količina le-tega ustrezna. Na kakovost izvedbe ŠPO vpliva mnogo različnih dejavnikov, ki pa hkrati vplivajo tudi drug na drugega. Eden izmed ključnih dejavnikov za zagotavljanje kakovosti športno-vzgojnega procesa je prav gotovo učitelj, ki lahko s svojo osebnostjo, izkušnjami in kompetencami vpliva na učinek drugih dejavnikov kakovosti ŠPO, obenem pa drugi dejavniki vplivajo na njegovo delo. Učitelj je odgovoren za kvalitetno izvedbo ŠPO in posledično njegove učinke na učence. Zato je ključno, da se vlaga v učitelja in v njegove kompetence. Le tako lahko namreč pričakujemo spremembe v kakovosti njegovega dela in posledično tudi več pozitivnih učinkov na učence ter njihov napredek na tem področju. Izhodiščna ideja raziskovanja je bila s kvantitativno raziskavo ugotoviti, kako razredni učitelji ocenjujejo svojo usposobljenost (kompetence) za kakovostno poučevanje športa; katera so tista področja poučevanja športa, kjer učitelji menijo, da so manj kompetentni, za katera pa so dovolj usposobljeni; ugotoviti stanje izvedbe predmeta šport pri razrednih učiteljih glede na nekatere kazalce kakovosti ŠPO; ugotoviti razlike po posameznih kazalcih kakovosti športa in v ocenah kompetentnosti glede na delovno dobo razrednih učiteljev ter njihovo stopnjo izobrazbe. Raziskava je bila opravljena na vzorcu 231 učiteljev razrednega pouka iz 137 osnovnih (centralnih in podružničnih) šol, ki so v šolskem letu 2015/2016 poučevali v 1. in 2. vzgojno-izobraževalnem obdobju. Vsi učitelji so trenutno ali v preteklosti poučevali predmet šport. Podatke za raziskavo smo pridobili s pomočjo spletnega vprašalnika, ki je zajemal kazalce kakovosti in kompetence učiteljev razrednega pouka za kakovostno poučevanje ŠPO. Teoretični del magistrskega dela zajema sistematični pregled tematike ugotavljanja in zagotavljanja kakovosti ter kompetenc za kakovostno poučevanje ŠPO. Vsebuje tudi celosten, širši pregled področja predmeta šport in dejavnikov/kazalcev kakovosti za njegovo poučevanje. Rezultati naše raziskave so pokazali, da razredni učitelji v povprečju svojo usposobljenost za poučevanje ŠPO vrednotijo precej visoko – 22 kompetenc od 36 v povprečju ocenjujejo s povprečno oceno nad 3, kar pomeni, da so zanje (zelo) usposobljeni. Tako zgolj 17,7 % učiteljev ocenjuje, da so slabše usposobljeni za 10 kompetenc ali več. Nadalje smo z analizo stanja nekaterih kazalcev kakovosti ugotovili, da predmet šport je glede na priljubljenost poučevanja na tretjem mestu. Učitelji so v prostem času v večini pogosto športno dejavni, nekaj manj jih šport spremlja v različnih medijih, precej redko pa se razredni učitelji udeležujejo športnih dogodkov. Večina učiteljev meni, da je na področju športa povprečno razgledana. Rezultati kažejo tudi na to, da učitelji posredno demonstracijo gibalnih prvin (demonstracija učenca ali z video posnetkom) uporabljajo predvsem za prikaz gimnastičnih prvin. Video posnetke v ta namen uporablja manj kot polovica učiteljev. Učitelji svojo telesno zmogljivost ocenjujejo kot dobro ali zelo dobro. Glede na mnenje učiteljev so prostorski pogoji za izvajanje ŠPO za malenkost boljši od materialnih, vendar oboji še niso na zadovoljivem nivoju. Vodstvo učiteljem prav tako ne zagotavlja osebne športne opreme, z namenom izboljšanja kakovosti izvajanja ŠPO pa učitelje najpogosteje spodbuja k sodelovanju z drugimi razrednimi učitelji in športnimi pedagogi. Kljub temu se učitelji o problematiki in načrtovanju ŠPO precej redko pogovarjajo z drugimi učitelji. Pa vendar tematiko ŠPO dokaj pogosto vnašajo tudi v razgovore s starši. Najpogosteje razredni učitelji nova znanja s področja ŠPO pridobivajo z ustnimi informacijami, pogosto si pomagajo tudi s podatki, pridobljenimi na spletu, najmanj pa uporabljajo tujo strokovno literaturo. Učitelji največkrat izobraževanja načrtujejo v sodelovanju s kolegi ali vodstvom. Nekaj več kot polovica učiteljev ima možnost vplivati na vsebino izobraževanj, ki potekajo na njihovi šoli. Razredni učitelji se na področju ŠPO izobražujejo precej redko, približno petina sodelujočih se še ni udeležila izobraževanja s to vsebino. Največ učiteljev se je so sedaj izobraževala na področju plesa, kot razlog, da se niso na področju ŠPO izobraževali več, pa je največ učiteljev navedlo finance in že primerno usposobljenost. Učitelji si v prihodnosti najbolj želijo pridobiti nova znanja s področja gimnastike. Najbolj pa jim ustreza aktivno izobraževanje v obliki seminarjev. Med učitelji z različno delovno dobo ni statistično pomembne razlik v vrednotenju kompetenc za kakovostno poučevanje predmeta šport, saj se pomembne razlike pojavljajo zgolj pri dveh kompetencah od 36-ih. Prav tako ne moremo potrditi statistično pomembnih razlik med učitelji z različno stopnjo izobrazbe, saj se pomembne razlike kažejo le pri treh kompetencah. Torej učitelji ne glede na stopnjo izobrazbe oz. delovno dobo kompetence za kakovostno poučevanje ŠPO vrednotijo precej visoko in enotno, kar bi bilo zelo vzpodbudno, če bi lahko z gotovostjo trdili, da se te kompetence tudi v praksi izražajo na tako visokem nivoju. Glede na nekatere kazalce kakovosti poučevanja ŠPO (odnos do poučevanja predmeta šport, sodelovanje s starši na področju predmeta šport, pogoji za načrtovanje in izvajanje predmeta šport) pa med učitelji z različno delovno dobo in stopnjo izobrazbe ne pojavljajo statistično pomembne razlike. To nakazuje na v povprečju enake pogoje za izvajanje ŠPO (učitelji delajo v zelo podobnih razmerah in na podoben način) in podoben odnos do predmeta. Rezultati magistrskega dela bodo doprinesli k razvoju didaktike športa in poučevanja športa na razredni stopnji osnovne šole. Na podlagi pridobljenih rezultatov se bodo lahko oblikovali ustrezni izobraževalni programi za poučevanje športa in različni potrebni priročniki. Znanstveni doprinos magistrskega dela bo prav tako v boljšem razumevanju in interpretaciji predmetno-specifičnih kompetenc razrednih učiteljev za kakovostno poučevanje športa s ciljem izpopolnjevanja študijskega programa ter kakovostnega usposabljanja študentov razrednega pouka za delo na področju športa. Za potrebe raziskave se je oblikoval tudi sistematičen in natančen seznam kompetenc razrednih učiteljev za poučevanje ŠPO, ki se bo lahko uporabljal v morebitnih prihodnjih raziskavah ali za samovrednotenje.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:predmet šport
Work type:Master's thesis (m2)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2016
COBISS.SI-ID:11107401 This link opens in a new window
Views:933
Downloads:152
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Competences of the primary school teachers to ensure high quality physical education
Abstract:
Nowadays we should be more aware of the importance of physical education than twenty years ago due to a very inactive way of spending free time and also due to many technical improvements. The importance or positive effects of physical education can be seen in many fields: bio psychosocial, personal, cognitive, moral and motivational. Physical activities play the most important role in child’s development and in his healthy life. The development of a young child and his attitude towards life are so much related that the deficits in one domain also cause deficits in another. Despite the fact that physical activity is one of child’s basic needs, the children are mainly motivated for that during physical education at school so it is very important to assure the right quantity and quality of physical education. The quality of physical education is influenced by many factors which have also an influence on each other. One of crucial factors for assuring a quality physical education at school is surely a teacher whose personality, experiences and competences influence other factors and also other factors influence his work. The teacher is responsible for a quality physical education and therefore for the effects on the pupils. Regarding all this, we should invest in a teacher and his competences. It is the only way to except changes in the quality of his work and as a result also more positive effects on pupils and their development in this domain. The basic idea of our research was to find out - using a quantitative research method, how primary teachers see their competences in order to assure a quality teaching of physical education; which are the spheres of physical education where teachers think that they lack competences or have enough competences; to establish how primary teachers perform physical education regarding some quality indicators for physical education; to establish the differences regarding quality sport indicators and competences considering the years of service of primary teachers and their level of education. The research was done on a sample of 231 primary teachers from 137 primary schools (central and subsidiary schools) who taught in the first and second educational period in the school year 2015/2016. All the teachers now teach or they taught the subject physical education in the past. We got the data for the research with the help of internet questionnaire which included the indicators of quality and competences of primary teachers in order to assure quality teaching of physical education. The theoretical part of our research work includes the systematic overview of establishing and assuring the quality and the competences in order to achieve quality teaching of physical education. It also includes a larger overview of the subject physical education and of the quality indicators for teaching this subject. According to the results of our research primary teachers, on average, evaluate the competency to teach the subject physical education at a high level – 22 competences out of 36 are on average evaluated with the mark 3 which means that they are (highly) competent. Thus, only 17,7 % of teachers estimate that they are less competent for 10 or more competences. Furthermore, we established (analysing the situation of quality indicators) that the subject physical education occupies the third place regarding its teaching popularity. In their free time teachers are often active, some of them read about sport in different media but primary teachers quite rarely participate in sports events. Most of teachers think that they are averagely educated in the domain of sport. The results also show that teachers use the indirect demonstration of physical elements (demonstration of a pupil or video demonstration) especially to demonstrate gymnastics elements. Video recording is used by less than half of teachers. Teachers think that their physical performance is good or very good. Considering teachers’ opinions spatial conditions for performing physical education are slightly better than material conditions but still not satisfying. In addition personal sport equipment is not provided by the management but the management however encourages teachers to cooperate with other primary teachers and sport educators. Despite that teachers rarely talk about problems related to physical education with other teachers. This theme is often present when talking with parents. Primary teachers usually get new knowledge through oral information, or they use data from Internet but they don’t often use foreign technical literature. Teachers mostly plan their education together with their colleagues or school management. More than half of teachers have the possibility to influence the contents of education performed at their school. Primary teachers are not so often educated in the domain of physical education, namely one fifth of people questioned have never participated in such an education. Teachers are mostly educated in the domain of dancing and they explained the reasons of not being educated in the domain of physical education as not having enough money or as already having a suitable education. What teachers want for the future is to get new knowledge in the domain of gymnastics. They like best an active education in a form of a seminar. Different years of service do not influence much the evaluation of competences for a quality teaching of physical education, namely some differences occur just at two out of 36 competences. There are also no significant differences among teachers having different educational level, as differences appear just at three competences. So, regardless of educational level or years of service, all teachers evaluate their competences for quality teaching of physical education at a very high level which would be quite stimulating if competences were really performed at such a high level. Considering some indicators for quality teaching of physical education (attitude towards teaching the subject physical education, cooperation with parents in this domain, conditions for planning and teaching this subject) there are no significant differences among teachers having different years of service or different level of education. All that shows that on average the conditions for teaching physical education are the same (teachers work in similar conditions and the methods are similar) and the attitude towards this subject is also the same. The results of research work will help to develop didactics of physical education and the teaching of physical education in the primary school. On the basis of the results obtained some educational programs will be developed as well as different manuals for teaching physical education. The scientific contribution of this research work will be in better understanding of competences of primary teachers for quality teaching of physical education and the aim is to improve the study program for students for the first educational period for the work in the domain of physical education. A thorough list of competences of primary teachers for teaching physical education was made for the needs of the research which could also be used in further researches or for auto evaluation.

Keywords:physical education

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