According to international declarations and conventions, as well as Legal order of Slovenia, children have rights. In spite of numerous laws protecting them, children are still being mistreated. In the past, children did not have the rights they have nowadays. Schools changed their view of children and childhood dramatically, as children became protected from work and exploatation. In the diploma thesis, we researched the historical and modern views of a child, childhood and child's rights, and familiarised ourselves with legal documents which determine what rights children have and their definitions. In addition, we researched the relation between children's rights and those of adults, as well as the differences. We established that the children's rights absolutely differ from the rights of adults. We were particularly interested in the children's rights in primary school and whether these are being violated. In a school environment, we have to make sure that children are aware of their rights and that they are not being violated. In addition to school environment, home environment, parents and/or guardians are of vital importance for a child. Children can be exposed to severe pressure and violations of their rights also at home, which can mark their lives drastically. The school staff have the right and duty to help the pupils as much as possible. The children's rights need to be protected at all times, while at the same time, the children also need to be aware of their duties, which are also crucial for a normal development and existence of an individual as well as society and which should be discussed more frequently. The teachers, as well as parents, have an important role to ensure that the duties of children are appropriately realised. In the diploma thesis we also talk about psychological rights of children, which are strongly interlinked with the rest of the rights. We researched how mental torture affects children and their physical, psychological and social development. In the end of the thesis, we also researched the responsibility of school, child and parents in case of violation of a child's rights and what we need to pay attention to in the future to ensure that the child's rights are sufficiently realised. The task of the school is to ensure that children's rights are respected and protected.