The thesis presents lead acid batteries. It describes the history, estimated battery lifetime with correct handling and maintainance. There are also shown new possibilities for life extension. Special attention is given to the industrial traction batteries because they represent a high cost to the owner and in case of poor preformance can lead to delays in production process. In this thesis, all components of lead acid batteries are listed. The base materials used in the interior of the cells are active plates, grid, separators and cell housing. Cells are the basic building blocks and the battery as whole depends on quality of each cell. A detailed overview of chemical process in cells is shown by a chemical reactions during battery charging and discharging. Inappropriate intensity of the reactions and consequently the possible existence for potencial problems is affected by the limit values of current and voltage, as a result of incorrect operation of the charger or the machine.
One of the main chapters of this thesis is an overview of reasons for the capacity reduction in batteries. Althought errors can derive from the manufacturing, most problems can be ascribed to incorrect use, that is correlated with the working methods, maintenance, servicing or they are normal result of the ongoing battery aging process. Most of these failures can be prevented or at least limited, but a big lack of knowledge is currently in Slovenia, lack of instructions for battery maintenance and handling.
Currently the best way for the lifetime extention of the traction batteries is BSI technology with refurbishment, which includes interior cleaning of all cells, desulphation and additive adding to protect the active plates. More than 80% of all deteriorated batteries in electric forklifts can be restored in this way. If the owner decides for BSI refurbishment before the battery is fully damaged and unsuitable for use, then the results are excellent and the refurbishment makes sense both from the financial perspective and the improvement in the performance capabilities of the forklift.
The last part of diploma thesis describes testing of BSI refurbishment process and efficiency of the additive, which is used to protect the active plates. Results of the accelerated battery lifetime testing prove that the cell with BSI additive have much lower capacity reduction and much longer lifetime than the battery without BSI additive.