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Raziskava stališč pedagoških delavcev Fakultete za farmacijo, Medicinske fakultete, Univerza v Ljubljani, in Medicinske fakultete, Univerza v Mariboru, do etičnih vprašanj farmakogenomike : univerzitetni študij farmacije
Črnič, Jan (Author), Kos, Mitja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Farmakogenomika je interdisciplinarna veda, ki proučuje kako in v kolikšni meri posameznikov genetski zapis določa farmakološki odziv na določeno zdravilo ali način zdravljenja. Obeta moţnost individualizacije zdravljenja z zdravili preko izbora ustreznega zdravila in njegovega odmerka, na podlagi poznavanja genske zasnove pacienta. Integracijo farmakogenomskega testiranja v standardno klinično prakso zadrţujejo tudi etična vprašanja. Namen diplomske naloge je bil raziskati kako zaskrbljujoča se zdijo pedagoškim delavcem Fakultete za farmacijo, Univerza v Ljubljani, Medicinske fakultete, Univerza v Ljubljani, in Medicinske fakultete, Univerza v Mariboru, (»anketiranci«) etična vprašanja farmakogenomike. Pregled etičnih vprašanj farmakogenomike smo pripravili s sistematičnim pregledom literature, zbrane v podatkovni bazi Pubmed. S pregledom literature smo identificirali 32 etičnih vprašanj, ki smo jih analizirali z uporabo etičnih načel avtonomnosti, neškodovanja, pravičnosti in koristnosti. Oblikovali smo spletni vprašalnik, v katerega smo vključili 22 vprašanj. Anketiranci so preko 4-stopenjske lestvice podajali stopnjo strinjanja s tem, kako močno zaskrbljujoč etični problem vsebina vprašaja za njih predstavlja. K sodelovanju pri raziskavi smo povabili učitelje, asistente in mlade raziskovalce. Pridobili smo odzive 102 anketirancev. Rezultate smo analizirali s pomočjo deskriptivne in sklepne statistike v programu SPSS 22. Glede na pridobljene rezultate lahko zaključimo, da večina obravnavanih tem za anketirance predstavlja oziroma vsaj deloma predstavlja zaskrbljujoče etične probleme. Najvišja povprečja odgovorov in s tem največje strinjanje anketirancev s tem, da vsebina obravnavanih tem predstavlja zaskrbljujoč etični problem, smo opazili pri temah: omogočanje farmakogenomskega testiranja neposredno strankam (povprečje 3,74), kršenje zasebnosti pacientove farmakogenomske informacije (povprečje 3,58), programi obveznega farmakogenomskega testiranja (povprečje 3,42), diskriminiranje na področju zdravstvenega zavarovanja in zaposlovanja zaradi neugodnih rezultatov farmakogenomskega testiranja (povprečje 3,28) in farmakogenomsko testiranje otrok (povprečje 3,25). S statistično analizo smo pri majhnem številu vprašanj odkrili razlike v odgovorih med skupinami anketirancev, opredeljenih glede na spol, starost, fakulteto ter delovanje na področju genetike. Zaključimo lahko, da razlike v odgovorih med navedenimi skupinami niso velike. Opazili pa smo trend, ki nakazuje, da anketirankam ţenskega spola, starejšim anketirancem, anketirancem, ki delujejo na področju medicine, in anketirancem, ki se s področjem genetike ali genetiki sorodnim področjem ne ukvarjajo ali pa se ukvarjajo samo deloma, vsebina etičnih vprašanj predstavlja bolj zaskrbljujoč etični problem, kot ostalim skupinam anketirancev.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:farmakogenomika vrednotenje mnenj spletno anketiranje etična vprašanja statistične analize
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FFA - Faculty of Pharmacy
Year:2015
Publisher:[J. Črnič]
Number of pages:92 f.
Place:Ljubljana
UDC:575.111:615:17(049.5)(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:3808113 This link opens in a new window
Views:757
Downloads:269
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Investigation of pedagogical workers of Faculty of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, attitudes toward ethical issues of pharmacogenomics
Abstract:
Pharmacogenomics is defined as an interdisciplinary study which investigates to what extend and in which ways is drug response determined by individuals genetic sequence, promising personalisation of drug therapy on the basis of understanding patient´s genotype. Several issues have precluded integration of pharmacogenomic testing to standard clinical practice, including multiple ethical issues.The purpose of our research was to evaluate how concerned are Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, pedagogical workers´ (hereinafter »respondents«) about the ethical issues of pharmacogenomics. We have prepared an overview of ethical issues of pharmacogenomics by carrying out a systematic review of relevant publications, available on the PubMed database. 32 ethical issues of pharmacogenomics were identified and analysed using ethical principles of autonomy, nonmaleficience, justice and utility. 22 issues were used to design a web-based questionnaire. Respondents were asked to rate level of their agreement with content of the issues representing a concerning ethical problem, using 4-item rating scale. Teachers, assistants and junior researchers were invited to participate in our research. We have obtained 102 responses from the respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics analysis of survey results was performed using SPSS, version 22. We can conclude that respondents perceive the majority of the topics addressed by our questionnaire as concerning or somewhat concerning ethical issues. We have observed highest average response and thus strongest agreement with content of the issue representing a concerning ethical problem in connection to topics that addressed: direct-to-consumer pharmacogenomic testing (average response 3,74), infringement of pharmacogenomic information privacy (average response 3,58), programmes of compulsory pharmacogenomic testing (average response 3,42), discrimination in health insurance and employment due to unfavourable pharmacogenomics test results (average response 3,28) and pharmacogenomic testing of children (average respons 3,25). Statistical analysis revealed differences in responses to several questions between groups of respondents indentified in terms of gender, age, faculty and dealing with genetics or genetics-related fields of study. We can conclude that the differences in responses between such groups are small. We have observed trend in our data indicating that female respondents, older respondents, respondents that work at faculties of medicine and respondents who do not or only partly deal with genetics or genetics-related fields of study in the context of their profession perceive the topics addressed by our questionnaire as more concerning ethical issues.


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