Trends of modern science education indicate that it is necessary to encourage students to understand authentic problems and develop their ability to solve them. In science this is more difficult due to the complexity of science concepts which is reflected in the presentation on the macro, submicro- and symbolic level. The complexity of the science concepts and its impact on teaching, learning and consequently on the ability to solve various science problems are presented in this paper. The formation of the adequate mental model of a specific science concept depends on understanding of all these three levels. The macro level is supposed to be always included in teaching, but the other two depend on the abilities of students, such as their preknowledge and their abstract thinking abilities. Different visualization elements can be used to lower chemical conepts abstractness at submicroscopic level. In recent years, eye tracking has become an increasingly used technique for the monitoring of various processes of learning and problem solving in science education. This technique allows gathering data about eye movements in the information processing, because there are significant correlations between the processes of cognition and eye movements. In this way it can be determinated how students think when exposed the authentic science problem solving, and which factors influence the problem solving.