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Gospodarnost in okoljski vidiki tehnologij pridobivanja lesnih sekancev za energetsko rabo : doktorska disertacija
Mihelič, Matevž (Author), Košir, Boštjan (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Področje proizvodnje biomase je obširno in zapleteno. Zato smo izbrali pristop usmerjen h kupcu, ki ga nato uporabljamo skozi vso proizvodno verigo - od gozda do kupca. V nasprotju z uveljavljenimi tehnologijami okroglega lesa je proizvodnja lesne biomase bolj zapletena. Razlog je predvsem v dejstvu, da je cena sekancev odvisna od več dejavnikov. Primerjali smo različne tehnologije pridobivanja biomase, predvsem smo se posvetili izvajanju del v zgodnjih redčenjih. Vhodni podatki v modelu temeljijo na več poskusnih objektih, na katerih smo raziskovali predvsem tehnologije strojne sečnje in spravila lesa z zgibnim polprikoličarjem. Z uporabo modelnega pristopa smo prikazali gospodarnost posameznih tehnologij. Ugotovili smo, da je zaslužek zaizvajalca pri tehnologijah pridobivanja biomase majhen, kljub temu, da smo predvideli uporabo sodobnih tehnologij. Velik problem za razvoj tehnologij pridobivanja biomase predstavlja odsotnost trga za zelene sekance v Sloveniji.V raziskavi smo ugotavljali tudi poškodbe sestoja in tal na vseh objektih v raziskavi. Razvili in prilagodili smo dve metodi. S prvo metodo smo ugotavljali poškodbe sestoja s prilagojeno metodo krožnih ploskev. Z drugo metodo smo ugotavljali globino kolesnic na profilih ob sečnih poteh in vlakah. Pokazali smo, da so poškodbe sestoja z uporabo strojne sečnje in spravila lesa manjše kot pri klasičnih tehnologijah dela z motorno žago in traktorjem. Poškodbe tal so bile majhne in ne bi smele povzročati nepopravljivih sprememb v gozdnih tleh. Z modelom celostnega vrednotenja vplivov tehnologij smo ocenjevali tehnologije glede na kriterije ekološkega in ekonomskega vrednotenja tehnologij. Z uporabo te metode smo skušali dobiti celosten pogled na uporabo različnih tehnologij.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:pridobivanje lesa, tehnologije, modeliranje, poškodbe sestoja, poškodbe tal, delo v gozdu, gozdarstvo, biomasa, lesna biomasa, sekanci, disertacije
Work type:Dissertation (m)
Tipology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2014
Publisher:[M. Mihelič]
Number of pages:XVI, 285 str.
UDC:630*33:630*36:630*83(043.3)=163.6
COBISS.SI-ID:796279 Link is opened in a new window
Views:1319
Downloads:309
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Economy and environmental aspects of forest harvesting for energy biomass
Abstract:
The first topic discussed in the thesis is biomass production. A customer focused approach has been chosen, in which we discuss the entire production chain Ž from forest to customer. In contrast to more established roundwood chains, the production of chips is more demanding as the price of chips is influenced by several factors. We have used a model to compare different technologies suitable for biomass production with focus on early thinnings. The inputs into the model are literature review and case studies of different technologies. The focus of the experimental work was new cut-to-length technology that has been introduced to Slovenian conditions. The model has delivered answers to questions regarding the economy of such biomass technologies as presented in the model. It has been shown that, although using new and adapted technologies that are highly mechanized, the income for the contractor is low. A big problem for the sector is the absence of market for some high value roundwood assortments as well as green chips in Slovenia. We have also conducted surveys of stand and soil damage on all case study objects. We have developed and adapted two methods; one for determining stand damages using plots on a grid, and the second one for the determination of rut depth on profiles that were set up along the skid trail. Using these methods, we have shown that stand damages are smaller using cut-to-length technology than when skidder and chain saw are applied. Concerning soil damage we have shown that when using the cut-to-length technology in dry weather, soil compaction and rutting are not problematic and are not causing irreversible changes to forest soils. Economic and ecological data from the case studies have been applied to a model of a comprehensive evaluation of technologies. In this model we have evaluated technologies from an economic and ecological point of view in an attempt to present a more complete view of the subject.

Keywords:forest harvesting, technologies, modeling, stand damages, soil damages, work in forest, forestry, biomass, woody biomass, wood chips

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