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Vpliv pogostih vnetij ušes na fonološki razvoj predšolskega otroka
Škofic, Mojca (Author), Ozbič, Martina (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Hočevar-Boltežar, Irena (Co-mentor)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/3130/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Govor in jezik sta pomembni področji otrokovega razvoja, njun napredek pa je najbolj očiten v predšolskem obdobju. Kljub temu, da razvoj na tem področju poteka po določenih zakonitostih, lahko nanj vpliva več dejavnikov – med drugim tudi vnetja ušes. V svojem delu se osredotočam prav na to področje – na vpliv pogostih vnetij ušes na fonološki razvoj predšolskih otrok. V delu najprej predstavim osnovno zgradbo ušesa, okvare sluha ter osnove poslušanja, nadaljujem s predstavitvijo fonetike in fonologije ter fonološkega razvoja otrok. Ločeno poglavje namenim tudi transkripciji govora, ki predstavlja pomemben del te naloge. Največji del pa je posvečen raziskavi – vanjo sem vključila 18 otrok (šest otrok s pogostimi vnetji ušes ter dvanajst otrok brez vnetij), starih od 4 let in 7 mesecev do 6 let in 1 meseca, vse pa sem testirala s Testom fonološkega razvoja, ki je nastal v okviru mednarodnega projekta Cross-Linguistic study of protracted phonological (speech) development in children. Njihove odgovore sem posnela in zapisala z mednarodno fonetično abecedo (IPA), nato pa analizirala. Zanimalo me je, kako se govorna realizacija otrok s pogostimi vnetji ušes razlikuje od govorne realizacije otrok brez vnetij ušes. Analizirala sem ujemanje njihovega izgovora celotne besede z izgovorom odraslega govorca iz istega (narečnega) okolja ter razlike, ki so se v izgovoru pojavile – torej različne fonološke procese (tako na nivoju besede kot tudi na nivoju zloga in posameznega glasu). Ugotovila sem, da se pri vseh otrocih najpogosteje pojavljajo procesi zamenjave, ki pa jih je pri otrocih s pogostimi vnetji ušes več kot pri otrocih brez vnetij. Največ težav se pojavlja pri pravilni realizaciji sibilantov, torej fonemov /s/, /z/, /ʦ/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ in /ʧ/ (razmerje pojavljanja med testno in kontrolno skupino je 3,1 : 1), ter fonema /r/ (razmerje pojavljanja med testno in kontrolno skupino je 3 : 1). Na tretjem mestu po pogostosti je menjava soglasnika z drugim soglasnikom (razmerje pojavljanja je 7,5 : 1), na četrtem pa slabljenje izgovorjave določenega glasu (razmerje pojavljanja je 2 : 1). Tem procesom sledijo še epenteza, poenostavitev soglasniškega sklopa, menjava samoglasnika z drugim samoglasnikom, ki ni posledica naravnih jezikovnih oziroma narečnih procesov, odzvenevanje, izpust določenega glasu, asimilacija, migracija ter metateza.

Language:Unknown
Keywords:vnetje srednjega ušesa
Work type:Not categorized (r6)
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2015
COBISS.SI-ID:10735945 This link opens in a new window
Views:1018
Downloads:155
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Secondary language

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Title:Influence of recurrent otitis media on phonological development of preschool children
Abstract:
Speech and language are two important areas of child's development and their progress is most evident at preschool age. Even though this development takes place within specific norms, it is influenced by various factors – one of them being recurrent otitis media. This is the very field I focus on in my thesis – the influence of recurrent otitis media on phonological development of preschool children. In my thesis, I first present basic ear anatomy, possible hearing impairments and hearing basics, followed by an introduction of phonetics, phonology and phonological development in children. I dedicate a separate chapter to speech transcription, which makes up an important part of my thesis. The largest part of the thesis has been set aside for the research - 18 children have been included (6 of them with recurrent otitis media and 12 unaffected by it) aged between 4 years and 7 months, and 6 years and 1 month. They have all been tested using “The phonological development test” that is the product of an international project called Cross-Linguistic study of protracted phonological (speech) development in children. I have recorded, transcribed (according to IPA) and analysed their answers. I was interested in the way speech realisation of various words differs between the children with recurrent otitis media and those unaffected by it. I have analysed the correspondence between their pronunciation of entire words and that of adult speakers of the same (dialect) area, and the occurring differences – meaning different phonological processes (at the level of word, syllable and phoneme). I have established that the processes of substitution are the most common among all children, but more frequent in the group of children with recurrent otitis media. The greatest number of problems occur with the correct articulation of sibilants, namely phonemes /s/, /z/, /ʦ/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ and /ʧ/ (the ratio between the test and control group being 3.1 : 1) and the phoneme /r/ (the ratio between the test and control group being 3 : 1). The third most frequent process is the substitution of a consonant with another consonant (7,5 : 1 ratio), with weak articulation of a certain phoneme (2 : 1) being the fourth. Those processes are followed by epenthesis, simplification of consonant clusters, substitution of a vowel with another vowel when not caused by natural language or dialect processes, devoicing, omission of a phoneme, assimilation, migration and metathesis.

Keywords:otitis media

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