The thesis covers the treatment of a variety of scientific papers, other literature and curricula on the basis of which we have developed and optimized the experiments, which are used in forensic laboratories to solve murder cases and other criminal acts. This is a procedure of determination of the DNA profile. The presented analogue experiments are appropriate for the primary school teaching.
The DNA electrophoresis is a method of paternity, kinship and the perpetrators of crime determination. It is an indispensable procedure in forensic science. For students, the comprehension of such a procedure is practically useful, increasing their motivation to study chemistry and science. In the theoretical part, the theoretical background for understanding the electrophoresis as a method of mixture separation is described. The basics of the DNA molecule, its isolation and sample preparation are described as well. The methods of painting for the electrophoretic spots detection are also presented.
On the basis of the studied literature, experiments were developed to carry out the electrophoresis as a method of mixture separation, appropriate for the primary school teaching: isolation of the DNA from plant sources, electrophoresis with dyes from markers, dyes for foods and amino acids electrophoresis. A special apparatus for electrophoresis was developed to allow the students a good insight into the actual execution of the procedure.
The curriculums for science classes were analyzed, based on which we have made suggestions on inclusion of electrophoresis as a mixture separation method into the primary school teaching.