This Master thesis is a comparative analysis of the legal and social status of Slovenian and Polish literary translators. The thesis describes the differences and similarities in the status of these groups of professionals. The author attempts to answer the question in which of the two countries literary translator have better working conditions or, to paraphrase, which of these countries provides a better support for these groups of professional. To answer this question the author uses the following research methods: comparative analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. The data was taken from different reports, articles and web pages, analysis of Slovenian and Polish laws and regulations relating to translators' rights and semi-structured interviews. These were carried out with different representatives of these groups of professionals in March and April of 2013. The results show that the status of Slovenian and Polish literary translator is quite similar in many respects; however, it appears that Slovenian translators are better off, as the Slovenian national support system of domestic translators is more developed. Furthermore, the status of this group of professional in Slovenia and Poland is very fragile, in particular that of translators, who make their living predominantly or exclusively with literary translations. Without corrective actions in both countries, active and effective work of professional associations, foreign support and an effective judicial system, literary translators are doomed to live in hand to mouth. However, with good will and support from other book market players, national institutions and political leaders and through joint efforts and cooperation between the translators themselves, there is a possibility to improve the current situation, thereby restoring their reputation and raising their public visibility. At the same time this would also create a better quality work environment. Both countries have the potential to do that.