Thesis titled Understanding and expressing time and causal relationships between two events in the pre-school period consists of a short theoretical part, in which I presented notion of time and causal relationship, and examples of their use in the pre-school period, and empirical part, which consists of data, obtained with help of research directly with children, as well as via survey by kindergarten teachers. I wanted to explore understanding and expressing of both of the relationships, between children aged 3 and 5 years, the differences based on age, gender and place of the kindergarten they are attending. Besides the research directly with the children, with whom I was trying to check child's recognition and expression of time and causal relationships between two events – by using ten pairs of pictures that I have shown them, my empirical part also consisted a survey with kindergarten teachers from the city and country kindergarten. I compared the results according to the place where the respondents were coming from.
The results of the research with children have shown that their age affects the understanding and expression of both relationships. In most cases with the time ratio, 5–5,5 years old boys from the city kindergarten were the best, followed by the 5–5,5 years old boys from the rural kindergarten, then girls from the city and girls from the rural kindergarten.
In a group of younger children, the best results were shown by girls from the rural kindergarten, followed by girls from the city, the boys from city and then the boys from the rural kindergarten.
In causal relationship, the results were even better. Five-year-olds from the city kindergarten had the best results again, followed by the boys and girls from the rural kindergarten and then the girls from the city.
In a group of younger children, the best results in causal relationship were shown by the girls from the rural, followed by the girls from the city, the boys from the city and then the boys from the rural kindergarten.
Analysis of survey with kindergarten teachers had shown that teachers in the city and in the countryside, have the same opinion on the research relationships, and also quite similar ways of representing time and causal relationship to the children in the nursery.