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Sobivanje jelke in bukve v Dinaridih : usmeritve za ohranitveno gospodarjenje z jelko
Diaci, Jurij (Author), Roženbergar, Dušan (Author), Nagel, Thomas Andrew (Author)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://eprints.gozdis.si/id/eprint/139 This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Drevesna sestava jelovo-bukovih gozdov se v prostoru in času spreminja. Nanjo vplivajo številni naravni in antropogeni dejavniki, ki delujejo neposredno ali posredno. Oblikovanje usmeritev za gojenje gozdov zato zahteva dobro poznavanje delovanja lokalnih ekoloških, zgodovinskih, gospodarskih in splošnih okoljskih dejavnikov. V prispevku prikazujemo sintezo štirih skupin raziskav, ki smo jih izpeljali v dinarskih jelovo-bukovih gozdovih v zadnjem desetletju in obravnavajo: 1) ekologijo pomlajevanja v manjših in srednjih vrzelih, 2) odziv sestojev v pragozdu Perućica na motnje srednjih jakosti (vetrolomi), 3) dolgoročne spremembe v vrstni sestavi pragozdov v jugovzhodni Evropi, in 4) odvisnost pomlajevanja v gospodarskih gozdovih od gozdnogojitvenega sistema. Namen prispevka je prikazati vlogo jelke v razvoju jelovo-bukovega gozda ter poudariti procese, ki vodijo v njeno sobivanje ali izločanje. Raziskave ekologije pomlajevanja nakazujejo, da je jelka uspešnejša na posebnih mikrorastiščih (hladnejše in vlažnejše razmere, odmrla drevesa, večja skalovitost, nižji pH tal, skromne svetlobe razmere). Na vetrolomnih površinah srednjih jakosti prevlada bukev, jelka pa se nasemeni kasneje v strnjena bukova mladovja. Naše raziskave niso potrdile hipoteze o lažjem uveljavljanju jelke v večjih sestojnih vrzelih gospodarskih gozdov. Spremembe vrstne sestave pragozdov v Sloveniji in jugovzhodni Evropi nakazujejo nazadovanje jelke v zadnjih petdesetih letih, kar je posledica več skupin vzrokov, še posebej zračnega onesnaženja in objedanja po divjadi. V Sloveniji je zmanjševanje deleža jelke v Dinaridih izrazito hitro. Primerjave z jugovzhodno Evropo kažejo, da so sicer raznovrstne strategije uveljavljanja jelke v Sloveniji neuspešne zaradi visokih gostot velikih rastlinojedih parkljarjev.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:jelka, Abies alba, bukev, Fagus sylvatica L., sobivanje, medsebojno nadomeščanje, objedanje mladja, propadanje gozdov, gojenje gozdov, Dinaridi, Dinarsko gorstvo
Work type:Scientific work (r2)
Tipology:1.02 - Review Article
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2010
Publisher:Inštitut za gozdno in lesno gospodarstvo
Number of pages:Str. 59-74
Numbering:Št. 91
UDC:630*22(045)=163.6
ISSN on article:0351-3114
COBISS.SI-ID:3002022 This link opens in a new window
Views:705
Downloads:145
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Zbornik gozdarstva in lesarstva
Shortened title:Zb. gozd. lesar.
Publisher:Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za gozdarstvo in obnovljive gozdne vire, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za lesarstvo
ISSN:0351-3114
COBISS.SI-ID:6206978 This link opens in a new window

Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Coexistence of silver fir and beech in the Dinaric Alps
Abstract:
The tree species composition of silver fir and beech forests has changed in space and time due to a number of direct and indirect natural and anthropogenic causal factors. Forming silvicultural guidelines, therefore, requires a sufficient understanding of the ecological, historical, economic and general environmental factors that influence silver fir-beech forests. In this paper, we present a synthesis of four research projects carried out in Dinaric silver fir-beech forests in the last decade: 1) regeneration ecology in small and medium canopy gaps; 2) stand response to intermediate wind disturbance in the old-growth silver fir-beech Perućica forest; 3) long-term changes in tree species composition of old-growth forests in South East Europe; and 4) interdependence between regeneration and silvicultural systems.The aim of the paper is to show the role of silver fir in the development of silver fir-beech forest, and to highlight the processes that lead to its coexistence or exclusion. Research on the ecology of regeneration suggests that silver fir regenerates better on special microsites (e.g. coolersites with more soil moisture, CWD, high rock coverage, lower pH of the soil, poor light conditions). In medium sized gaps beech is dominant, while silver fir establishes itself later under the young beech canopy. Our research did not confirm the hypothesis of better regeneration success of silver fir in larger canopy gaps in managed forests. Repeated inventories from forest reserves in Slovenia and South-Eastern Europe show that silver fir declined in the last fifty years due to a variety of causes, primarily from air pollution and ungulate browsing. In Slovenia in particular, a drastic reduction of the share of silver fir occurred rapidly. Comparisons with South-Eastern Europe suggest that a wide range of regeneration strategies of silver fir in Slovenia failed because of high densities of ungulates.


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