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Prebavna mikrobiota kot dejavnik pri razvoju debelosti
Jerman, Vesna (Author), Avguštin, Gorazd (Author)

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://aas.bf.uni-lj.si/zootehnika/96-2010/PDF/96-2010-1-27-36.pdf New window

Abstract
Porast debelosti v moderni družbi je povezan z večjo pojavnostjo z debelostjo povezanih bolezni in predstavlja veliko finančno breme za javno zdravstvo. Pomembno odkritje na področju mikrobiologije prebavnega trakta sesalcev je povezano z vlogo prebavne mikrobiote pri razvoju debelosti. Z novimi molekularnimi metodami in poskusi z gnotobiotskimi živalmi so do neke mere pojasnili udeležbo prebavne mikrobiote pri uravnavanju telesne mase in energijskega ravnovesja gostitelja. Prebavna mikrobiota vpliva na vnos hranil in porabo energije iz hrane in pospešuje shranjevanje le-te v maščobna tkiva s procesi fermentacije, olajšane absorpcije in tudi z vplivom na izražanje gostiteljevih genov (protein Fiaf) ter na aktivnost gostiteljevih encimov (proteinska kinaza AMPK). Pri debelih miših in ljudeh je prebavna mikrobiota dokazano bolj učinkovita pri izkoriščanju energije iz hrane kot pri suhih osebkih. Obstajajo značilne razlike v sestavi mikrobne združbe glede na debel oz. suh fenotip. V prebavilih debelih živali in ljudi se dosledno kae povišan dele predstavnikov bakterij iz debla Firmicutes na račun zmanjšanja predstavnikov debla Bacteroidetes, obe prevladujoči debli pa v prebavilih sesalcev skupaj predstavljata do 90 % vseh bakterij. Izkazalo se je, da je prebavna mikrobiota udeležena tudi pri patofiziologiji debelosti preko dejavnikov, kot je mikrobni LPS. Rezultati raziskav kažejo, da lahko spremembe deleža maščob v hrani vplivajo na sestavo mikrobne združbe ter da te spremembe vplivajo na pojavnost metabolnih bolezni. Odpira se novo področje manipulacije prebavne mikrobiote za zdravljenje debelosti in z njo povezanih bolezni.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:mikrobiologija, prebavni trakt, debelo črevo, mikrobiota, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, debelost, ITM, genomika, metagenomika
Work type:Not categorized (r6)
Tipology:1.02 - Review Article
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2010
Number of pages:str. 27-36
Numbering:Letn. 96, št. 1
UDC:579:575
ISSN on article:1581-9175
COBISS.SI-ID:2694536 Link is opened in a new window
Views:585
Downloads:157
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Acta agriculturae Slovenica
Shortened title:Acta agric. Slov.
Publisher:Biotehniška fakulteta
ISSN:1581-9175
COBISS.SI-ID:213840640 New window

Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:
The increased prevalence of obesity in modern society is associated with incidence of obesity related diseases and represents a financial burden on public health. Important discovery in the field of microbial ecology of the gut was the possible involvement of the gut microbiota in obesity development. Using new molecular techniques and gnotobiotic animal models has revealed the relation between the regulation of body mass and energy balance of the host with the microbial community of the gut. Gut microbiota affects nutrient intake, facilitate the extraction of energy from food and promote storage of the calories in host adipose tissue through processes of fermentation, absorption and through the effect on the expression of host genes (e.g. Fiaf) and the activity of host enzymes (e.g. AMPK). In obese mice and humans the gut microbiota is clearly able to obtain energy from food more effectively as in the lean subjects. There are significant differences in the composition of microbial communities in relation to fat vs. lean phenotype. In the gut of obese animals and humans the increased proportion of the Firmicutes at the expense on Bacteroidetes was consistently detected. Both are the dominant bacterial groups in mammalian gastrointestinal tract, accounting together for 90% of all bacteria. It has been shown that gut microbiota is involved also in patophysiology of obesitz through factors such as microbial LPS. Existing results show that high fat diet can affect the composition of microbial community in the gut and that these changes can further affect the incidence of metabolic disease. This evidence potentially opens a new field of manipulation of the gut microbiota as a new strategy to treat obesity and related diseases.

Keywords:microbiology, alimentary tract, hindgut, microbiota, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, obesity, BMI, genomics, metagenomics

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