The main topic of this bachelor thesis is the development of geodetic instruments and a description of some instruments that are currently present on the market. The development is, roughly speaking, based on four periods: archaic, optical, electro optical and electronic. Instruments’ specifications of leading manufacturers are listed at the end of the chapters. On the market, the instruments offer more than just measuring points; moreover, they also provide visual support for measurement, the unification of TPS and GPS system and the terrestrial laser scanning, one of most recent techniques for capturing data about objects in space and the space itself. Through the development we can conclude that the complexity of the instruments and the simplicity of their use increased inversely proportional, which caused changes in the operational requirements of surveyors and in the measurement process itself.