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Nov način simuliranja občutka vožnje
ZAJC, MATIC (Author), Klančar, Gregor (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
To diplomsko delo predstavlja nov način simuliranja občutka vožnje. V ta namen na trgu obstajajo različni simulatorji. Tem je skupno, da za generiranje sile uporabljajo gravitacijo, kar za seboj prinese številne omejitve, predvsem pri simuliranju dolgotrajnih pospeškov. Naš način simuliranja občutka vožnje pa deluje na principu generiranje sile na glavo uporabnika s pomočjo aktuatorjev. V prvem delu si bomo na kratko ogledali zgodovino razvoja simulatorjev. Simulatorji so bili v zadnjih desetletjih deležni obsežnega razvoja, vendar se do današnjega dneva srečujejo z istimi problemi in izzivi. Nov način simuliranje občutka vožnje pa se srečuje s čisto drugačnimi. Nov način simuliranja občutka vožnje generira enako silo na glavo uporabnika, kot bi jo čutil uporabnik v dejanskem vozilu. Simulator oz. diplomsko delo je sestavljeno iz več sklopov, ki skupaj delujejo kot zaključena celota. Prvi skop opisuje različne aktuatorje za generiranje sile. Izbira aktuatorja močno vpliva na naslednji sklop, izbiro krmiljenja oz. regulacijo aktuatorja. Simulacije so pokazale, da v primeru izbire enosmernega krtačnega motorja, najboljše rezultate daje regulacija sile z neposrednim merjenjem le te. V ta namen si bomo ogledali tudi princip merjenja sile, ki se generira med vodili in uporabnikom. Za generiranje kakršnekoli sile potrebujemo napetostni vir. Pri izbiri enosmernega krtačnega motorja je zahtevana moč napajalnega vira visoka, to močno vpliva ceno. Za napajalni vir smo zato izbrali kar dva računalniška napajalnika, ki skupaj dajeta 24V napetost in s tem krmilita naš aktuator. Zadnji in najpomembnejši sklop pa predstavlja programski del, ki je sestavljen iz dveh programov. Glavni program deluje skupaj s simulacijsko igro, njegova naloga je v najkrajšem možnem času pošiljati podatke iz simulacije na krmilnik Netduinu. Program, ki se nahaja na Netduino, pa sprejema te podatke ter s pomočjo merjenja sile med uporabnikom in vodilom ustrezno regulira silo, tako da je napaka med izmerjeno silo in pridobljeno čim manjša. Glavni program je obsežen, njegovo izvajanje pa je časovno zahtevno, kar predstavlja prvo ozko grlo hitrosti izvajanja. Zagotavljati mora pošiljanje podatkov na nekaj milisekund. Rešitev, ki omogoča hitrostno pošiljanje podatkov, je virtualni spomin. Ta deluje tako, da ima simulacijska igra dodeljeni prostor na RAM pomnilniku, ki nam je dostopen. Glavna prednost tega je, da se nahaja na samem pomnilniku in druga, da je velikost virtualne datoteke, do katere dostopamo, velikokrat manjša od celotnega spomina simulacijske igre. Drugo ozko grlo hitrosti izvajanja pa predstavlja program na Netduinu, ki je zadolžen hkrati za merjenje vseh sil med uporabnikom in vodili ter za regulacijsko zanko. Natančnost meritev je zaradi šuma analogno digitalnega pretvornika povezana s hitrostjo. Hitrost same regulacijske zanke ne predstavlja velike težave, zato smo se osredotočili na hitrost merjenja sile. Zaradi šuma smo vzeli povprečje stotih meritev, pri čemer smo v vsakem krogu regulacijske zanke smo prepisali najstarejšo z novo. Ta algoritem je omogočil, da pridobimo tako želeno hitrost, kot tudi natančnost. Primerjava našega načina simuliranja občutka vožnje in klasičnega, ki je predstavljena v zadnjem poglavju, jasno prikazuje prednosti prvega. Poglavitni prednosti sta, da naš simulator nima omejitev teže uporabnika in je zmožen generirati občutek pospeška tudi do 6G. V fazi razvoja smo zgradili prototip, ki nam je omogočil temeljito razviti idejo. Odzivi testnih uporabnikov so bili zelo pozitivni in so v veliki meri pripomogli k nadaljnjemu razvoju.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:simulator vožnje, simuliranje občutka vožnje
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Organization:FE - Faculty of Electrical Engineering
Year:2015
Views:445
Downloads:101
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:A new method for simulation of driving experience
Abstract:
This thesis presents a new method of simulating the sensation of driving. There are many different driving simulators currently on the market. All of which use the force of gravity to simulate the sensation of driving, which limits their capabilities (especially in regard to simulating long-term forces). Our method works on the principle of generating forces to the head of the user, using actuators. The first part gives a quick overview of the history and development of motion simulators. There have been numerous developments throughout the last decades, but the major issues persist. The new method of simulating the sensation of driving faces its own challenges. The new method of simulating the sensation of driving generates the same forces on the head of the user as he would experience driving an actual vehicle. The simulator, as the thesis, is composed of several units that work together as a whole. The first unit outlines the possible actuators for generating force. The choice of the actuator has a major impact on the choice of the open- or closed-loop controller. The simulation shows that, in the case we choose a DC motor, best results are obtained if controlling the force by measuring it directly. For this purpose we will have a look at the method for measuring the forces generated between the guides and the user. To generate any kind of force we need a power supply. The chosen DC motor requires a high power supply, which has an immense impact on the cost. Therefore we have decided to use two computer power supply units, which together produce a voltage of 24V, to control our actuator. The last and most important part is the software which consists of two programs.   The main program is entwined with the simulation game; its purpose is to send information from the simulation to the controller Netduino within the shortest time possible. The program on Netduino receives the data and, by means of measuring the force between the user and the guide, controls it appropriately so that the error between the measured and the obtained force is minimized. The main program is the first bottleneck of the time complexity, it has to ensure data transfer every few milliseconds. This can be achieved by using the principle of memory-mapped files. The simulation game gets free access to an allotted space on the RAM. This gives us the advantage of having the file we are accessing handy, the size of which is many times smaller than the whole memory of the simulation game. The second bottleneck is the program on Netduino, which is responsible for measuring all the forces acting between the user and guides, and for controlling the loop. Because of the noise of the analogue-digital converter, the accuracy of the measurement correlates to its speed. The speed of the loop control does not pose a problem, therefore we focused our attention on improving the measuring speed. Because of the noise, we had to use the average of hundred measurements. At the beginning of each loop we replaced the oldest result with the new one. With this algorithm we were able to achieve the desired speed as well as accuracy. The comparison of our driving simulator to the classical type, contained in the last part of the thesis, shows that the former has many advantages, not the least of which are no maximum user weight and the capability of generating long term forces of up to 6G. In the course of the development we constructed a prototype to help us thoroughly explore the idea. Test users provided us with a lot of positive and constructive criticism to aid us on the path of further refinement and development of the product.

Keywords:driving simulator, simulating the sensation of movement

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