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Analiza kakovosti kokonov sviloprejke Bombyx mori, proizvedenih v Sloveniji
ID Ladislav Varga, Egshig (Author), ID Rijavec, Tatjana (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, ID Berčič, Rebeka Luciana (Comentor)

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Abstract
Prava svila je izločina sviloprejke Bombyx mori L. Predstavlja le okrog 0,1 % svetovne proizvodnje tekstilnih vlaken, a je zaradi cene, ki je kar 20-kratnik cene bombaža, pomembna tekstilna surovina. Potrebe po pravi svili na svetovnem trgu v zadnjih dveh desetletjih naraščajo za tekstilne namene, prav tako za kozmetično industrijo in uporabo v medicini. V Evropi je prihod sintetičnih vlaken dokončno uničil svilogojstvo in svilarstvo, s tem pa so se izgubila tudi znanja, med drugim tudi o odmotavanju kokonov in izdelavi svilene preje. Oživljanje svilogojstva se je v Sloveniji začelo leta 2016 s cilji vzpostavitve »zelenega« svilogojstva brez uporabe za okolje škodljivih fitofarmacevtskih sredstev in vzgajanje odpornih ras sviloprejk brez uporabe antibiotikov. Namen magistrskega dela je bil analizirati kokone dvajsetih vzorcev, ki so se med seboj razlikovali po izvoru hrane sviloprejk, tj. listov bele murve, in rejskih praksah, predvsem v načinu hranjenja gosenic in sušenja kokonov. Razvita je bila elektronska naprava z dvema navijalnima mestoma, ki je omogočila sočasno odmotavanje najmanj dveh kokonov in elektronsko beleženje dolžine surove filamentne svile (bave). Na kokonih so bili pred odmotavanjem izmerjeni masa, dolžina, debelina in videz. Za vsak vzorec je bilo odmotanih po 10 kokonov, za katere so bili poleg dolžine in mase svile bave brez pretrga izmerjeni še masa ostanka svilenega ovoja in masa bube. Najboljše rezultate dolžine svile bave je imel vzorec 2/4 (leto 2017, rejec z Madžarske, genotip murve Old Hu ge. (wild)) s povprečno dolžino svile bave 1,27 km/kokon in dolžinske mase 2,63 dtex. Vsi kokoni so se zelo dobro odmotavali. Med slovenskimi rejci je bil najboljši vzorec 2/9 (leto 2017, rejec ISS RLB (Maribor), genotip murve Old Slo genotip) s povprečno dolžino svile bave 1,205 km/kokon, dolžinske mase 2,48 dtex. Kokoni so pred odmotavanjem vsebovali povprečno 5,49 % zračne vlage, pri odmotavanju pa se je odstranilo povprečno 4,7 % sericina in drugih proteinov. Med maso kokona in svilenega ovoja obstaja linearna soodvisnost, pri čemer je bilo za naše vzorce ugotovljeno, da predstavlja svila bave dobro tretjino mase kokona, tj. povprečno 33,4 %. Uspešnost reje je močno vplivala na dolžino odmotane svile. Superiorni kokoni so dali nad 950 m, slaba reja pa med 650 in 700 m svile bave/kokon. Na podlagi analiziranih kokonov lahko rečemo, da so bili kokoni iz let 2017 in 2021 v povprečju zelo izenačeni po masi, dolžini in debelini, le da je bila surova svila v letu 2017 v povprečju bolj fina (2,5 dtex) kot v letu 2021 (2,8 dtex).

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:naravna svila, telettes, strusa, kosmata svila, divja svila, odmotavanje svile
Work type:Master's thesis/paper
Organization:NTF - Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering
Year:2024
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-158755 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:20.06.2024
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Quality analysis of silkworm Bombyx mori cocoons produced in Slovenia
Abstract:
True silk is the secretion of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. It accounts for only about 0.1% of the world's textile fibre production, but its price, which is 20 times that of cotton, makes it an important textile raw material. The demand for real silk on the world market has been growing over the last two decades for textile purposes, as well as for the cosmetics and medical industries. In Europe, the arrival of synthetic fibres has finally destroyed silk farming and silk milling, and with it the knowledge of, among other things, cocoon unravelling and the production of silk yarn. The revival of silk farming in Slovenia began in 2016 with the objectives of establishing “green” silk farming without the use of environmentally harmful plant protection products and breeding resistant breeds of silkworms without the use of antibiotics. The aim of the MSc thesis was to analyse the cocoons of 20 samples that differed in the origin of the silkworm food, i.e. white mulberry leaves, and in the breeding practices, in particular the way the caterpillars were fed, and the cocoons were dried. An electronic device with two winding points was developed, which enabled at least two cocoons to be unwound simultaneously and the length of the raw silk filament (bava) to be recorded electronically. The weight, length, thickness, and appearance of the cocoons were measured before unwinding. For each sample, 10 cocoons were unwound. The length of the raw silk without breakage, the mass of the silk remnants and of the cocoon were measured. The longest raw silk fibre was obtained from sample 2/4 (year 2017, breeder from Hungary, mulberry genotype Old Hu ge. (wild)) with an average silk cocoon length of 1.27 km and a length mass of 2.63 dtex. All cocoons were very well unwound. The best sample among Slovenian breeders was 2/9 (year 2017, breeder ISS RLB(Maribor), Old Slo genotype) with an average silk cocoon length of 1,205 km and a length mass of 2,48 dtex. The cocoons contained an average of 5.49 % air moisture before threshing and an average of 4.7 % sericin and other proteins were removed during threshing. There is a linear correlation between the weight of the cocoon and the silk envelope, and for our samples it was found that the silk of the bale represented a good third of the weight of the cocoon, i.e. an average of 33.4 %. The length of the unwound silk was strongly influenced by the farming performance. Superior cocoons yielded over 950 m, while poor breeding yielded between 650 m and 700 m of silk bale/cocoon. Based on the cocoons analysed, it can be said that the 2017 and 2021 cocoons were on average very similar in weight, length and thickness, but the raw silk in 2017 was on average finer (2.5 dtex) than in 2021 (2.8 dtex).

Keywords:natural silk, telettes, struss, hairy silk, wild silk, silk reeling

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