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Prostorska razporeditev, območja aktivnosti in telesna masa jelenjadi (Cervus elaphus L.) glede na okoljske dejavnike : doktorska disertacija
Jerina, Klemen (Author), Adamič, Miha (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://www.digitalna-knjiznica.bf.uni-lj.si/dd_jerina_klemen.pdf This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Delo celovito obravnava vplive okoljskih dejavnikov na: 1) celoletno, sezonskoin dnevno-nočno prostorsko razporeditev jelenjadi, 2) velikosti njenihceloletnih individualnih območij aktivnosti (IOA), in 3) njeno telesno maso. Analize habitatnega izbora in IOA jelenjadi temeljijo na podatkih večletne VHF telemetrije 50 košut in jelenov (11.000 lokacij) in enoletne GPS telemetrije 4 košut (16.000 lokacij) iz 4 območij v Sloveniji, analize telesnemase pa na geo-lociranih podatkovnih nizih (na kilometer natančno) 3.920 osebkov jelenjadi, ki so bili uplenjeni na območju skoraj vse RS. Vse podatke o zgradbi prostora (npr. topografske in gozdno-vegetacijske značilnosti, gozdni rob, ceste, naselja in krmišča) in o drugih okoljskih dejavnikih (npr. gostota odstrela jelenjadi, jakost sončnega obsevanja, padavine, temperatura) smo pripravili v GIS. Najpomembnejše ugotovitve in zaključki so: 1) Jelenjad se prek vsega leta, še posebej pa pozimi, koncentrira okoli krmišč. Krmljenje vpliva tudi na zmanjševanje njenih IOA, vplivov tega ukrepa na njeno telesno maso pa nismo ugotovili. Gostote jelenjadi so izrazito povečane v 500-metrski okolici krmišč, še vedno velike pa v 1.500-metrskem pasu, kar je zaradi problematičnih vplivov jelenjadi na gozd treba upoštevati. 2) Jelenjad je ekotonska vrsta, saj vse leto in zlasti v vegetacijski dobi poudarjeno uporablja okolico gozdnega roba. Negozdne površine (travniki, kmetijske kulture) so eden njenih ključnih prehranskih habitatov. Njihova dostopnost pogojuje nosilno zmogljivost prostora. Zato se znjihovim naraščanjem in povečevanjem gostote gozdnega roba IOA jelenjadi zmanjšujejo, njena telesna masa pa povečuje. 3) Jelenjad se izogiba bližini naselij in pomembnejših cest (min. 250 m) ter v njihovi okolici živi bolj prikrito (poudarjena raba varnostnega kritja, nočna raba predelov blizu cestam). Zaradi bariernega efekta ceste funkcionalno razrežejo potencialni habitat jelenjadi na zaplate, kar pomembno vpliva na velikosti njenih IOA - v večjih zaplatah ima večja IOA in obratno. 4) Jelenjad vse leto, še posebej pa pozimi (ker v njih kljub snegu najde hrano), nekoliko pogosteje uporablja sestoje z bujnim zeliščnim in grmovnim slojem (mladovja, sestoje v pomlajevanju, prebiralne gozdove in grmišča), saj hkrati nudijo dobro kritje in hrano. Debeljaki in zlasti drogovnjaki pa so nepriljubljeni. Z naraščanjem deleža slednjih, kot tudi z naraščanjem deleža iglavcev, se telesna masa jelenjadi zmanjšuje. 5) Z naraščanjem nadmorske višine (in posledičnim skrajševanjem vegetacijske dobe in podaljševanjem zime) telesna masa jelenjadiupada, velikosti njenih IOA pa naraščajo. 6) Na telesno maso in velikosti IOA jelenjadi vpliva tudi njena populacijska gostota. 7) Jelenjad torej geografsko variiranje efektivne nosilne zmogljivosti prostora v določenimeri kompenzira s specifično prostorsko razporeditvijo in rabo večjih ali manjših IOA, kljub temu pa ne doseže idealne proste razporeditve, zato kakovost habitata vpliva tudi na njeno telesno maso.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:jelenjad, Cervus elaphus, VHF in GPS telemetrija, celotni, sezonski in dnevno-nočni habitatni izbor, območje aktivnosti, telesna masa, telesna teža, zgradba prostora, okoljski dejavniki, GIS, zimsko dopolnilno krmljenje, ceste, zgradba gozda, gozdni rob
Work type:Dissertation (m)
Tipology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2006
Publisher:[K. Jerina]
Number of pages:XI,172 str.+pril.
Place:Ljubljana
UDC:630
COBISS.SI-ID:1717926 Link is opened in a new window
Views:958
Downloads:204
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Secondary language

Language:English
Abstract:
This thesis explores the complex influence of environmental factors on the: 1)annual, seasonal, and circadian spatial distribution, 2) annual home range size (HR), and 3) body mass of red deer. Analyses of red deer habitat selection and HR are based on multiyear VHF telemetry data gathered from 50 hinds and stags (11.000 fixes) and a one-year GPS telemetry of 4 hinds (16.000fixes) from 4 different areas within Slovenia. Furthermore, analyses ofred deer body mass are based upon geo-referenced (1 km accuracy) datasets of3.920 deer harvested from the entire land area of Slovenia. All spatially explicit habitat features (e.g. topography, vegetation type, forest structure,roads, supplemental feeding places - SFP) and other environmental factors (e.g. red deer harvest density, temperature, participation) were incorporated into a GIS. The main results can be summarized as follows: 1) Reddeer aggregate around SFP throughout the year, especially during winter. Supplemental feeding also diminishes HR, but there was no effect on red deer body mass caused by this measure. Red deer density was strongly increased within a 500-meter radius of the SFP and still noticeably increased within a 1500-meter radius - a fact that needs to be considered because of heavy forestdamage in these areas. 2) Since red deer primarily use the vicinity of the forest edge, the species can be viewed as ecotonal. Non-forest areas (meadows, agricultural areas) provide crucial feeding habitats, and their availability influences the carrying capacity of habitat As a result, the increase of non-forest areas and forest edge density decreases the red deer HRand increases its body mass. 3) Red deer avoids the proximity of settlementsand roads (250 m min.) and stays concealed in their vicinity (increased use of security cover, exclusively nocturnal use of nearby areas). Due to their barrier effect, roads functionally cut red deer potential habitatinto fragments, which also affects the HR size (the latter positively depends on fragment size). 4) Deer prefer forests with richer herb and shrub layers (young forest, selective thinning forest, forest in rejuvenation phase etc.) since they offer more food and security cover. Mature stands and especially pole stands are less preferred. As the percentage of less preferredforest (as well as that of conifers) increases, red deer body mass decreases. 5) As elevation increases (resulting in a shorter vegetation periodand prolonged winter), red deer body mass decreases and its HR size increases. 6) Body mass and HR size of red deer is also influenced by its population density. 7) The red deer can thus compensate for the spatial variation of habitat quality through its specific spatial distribution and theuse of smaller/larger HR, despite that it does not reach an ideal free distribution, therefore habitat quality also influences its body mass.


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