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Objective monitoring of laser tattoo removal in human volunteers using an innovative optical technique : a proof of principle
ID Golmajer Zima, Neža (Author), ID Verdel, Nina (Author), ID Lukač, Matjaž (Author), ID Majaron, Boris (Author)

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Abstract
Objectives: Assess the suitability of the technique for objective monitoring of laser tattoo removal by an extended treatment protocol. Materials and Methods: One half of the tattoo in the first volunteer was treated with nanosecond and the other half with picosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm. In the second subject, four test areas were treated repeatedly using different radiant exposures from 1.5 to 6 J/cm$^2$. Measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra and photothermal radiometric transients were performed 4–20 weeks after each treatment session. Inverse Monte Carlo analysis based on a three‐layer model of tattooed skin was applied to assess the tattoo characteristics and analyze their changes. Results: The results clearly indicate a gradual reduction of the ink content and an increase of the subsurface depth of the tattoo layer with all treatments at a radiant exposure of 3 J/cm$^2$ or higher. The observed dependences on laser pulse duration, radiant exposure, and a number of treatments are in excellent agreement with visual fading of the tattoo. Conclusions: The presented methodology enables noninvasive characterization of tattoos in human skin and objective monitoring of the laser removal treatment.

Language:English
Keywords:diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, inverse Monte Carlo, laser tattoo removal, pulsed photothermal radiometry, skin characterization
Work type:Article
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FMF - Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
FŠ - Faculty of Sport
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Year:2023
Number of pages:Str. 724-733
Numbering:Vol. 55, iss. 8
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-152630 This link opens in a new window
UDC:535
ISSN on article:1096-9101
DOI:10.1002/lsm.23720 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:163247107 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:01.12.2023
Views:267
Downloads:24
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Lasers in surgery and medicine
Shortened title:Lasers surg. med.
Publisher:Wiley, American Society for Laser Medicine & Surgery
ISSN:1096-9101
COBISS.SI-ID:16392665 This link opens in a new window

Licences

License:CC BY-NC 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Description:A creative commons license that bans commercial use, but the users don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

Projects

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P1-0192
Name:Svetloba in snov

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P1-0389
Name:Medicinska fizika

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:PR-10471

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:PR-07590

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