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The effects of the cultivar and environment on the phenolic contents of hazelnut kernels
ID Solar, Anita (Author), ID Medič, Aljaž (Author), ID Slatnar, Ana (Author), ID Mikulič Petkovšek, Maja (Author), ID Botta, Roberto (Author), ID Rovira, Merce (Author), ID Sarraquigne, Jean-Paul (Author), ID Silva, Ana Paula (Author), ID Veberič, Robert (Author), ID Štampar, Franci (Author), ID Hudina, Metka (Author), ID Bacchetta, Loretta (Author)

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Abstract
Different climatic conditions are known to affect the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites. Therefore, the phenolic contents in new growing areas could affect the quality and flavor of hazelnuts. The aim of this study was to determine the variability of the phenolic contents of the kernels in different commercial hazelnut cultivars depending on their growing area. Five cultivars (‘Tonda Gentile delle Langhe’, ‘Merveille de Bollwiller’, ‘Pauetet’, ‘Tonda di Giffoni’, and ‘Barcelona’ (syn. ‘Fertile de Coutard’)) grown in different European collection orchards were included in the study. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds. Thirteen phenols were identified in the hazelnut kernels, including 7 flavanols, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 3 flavonols, and one dihydrochalcone. Catechin and procyanidin dimers were the main phenolic compounds found in the hazelnut kernels. The highest contents of catechin and total flavanols were determined in cultivars cultivated in Spain and northern Italy, and the lowest in Slovenia and France. Flavanols were the major phenolic groups independent of the place of cultivation, as they accounted for more than 50% of all phenolic compounds identified. The flavanols were followed by hydroxybenzoic acids, flavonols, and dihydrochalcones. Higher contents of flavanols and flavonols were found in kernels from areas characterized by higher natural irradiation, which stimulates their accumulation. The contents of hydroxybenzoic acids correlated with altitude, which stimulated phenolic acid synthesis. A negative correlation was observed between the dihydrochalcone content and annual rainfall, probably due to hydric stress.

Language:English
Keywords:Corylus avellana, phenolic compounds, quality, identification, quantification, HPLC, mass spectrometry
Work type:Article
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Year:2022
Number of pages:Str. 1-15
Numbering:Vol. 11, iss. 22, 3051
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-142617 This link opens in a new window
UDC:634.11/.12
ISSN on article:2223-7747
DOI:10.3390/plants11223051 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:129602307 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:16.11.2022
Views:798
Downloads:53
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Plants
Shortened title:Plants
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:2223-7747
COBISS.SI-ID:523345433 This link opens in a new window

Licences

License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.

Secondary language

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:fenolne spojine, leska, kakovost, identifikacija, kvantifikacija, sekundarni metaboliti, HPLC, masna spektrometrija

Projects

Funder:EC - European Commission
Funding programme:AGRI GENRES Community Program
Project number:870/2004

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