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Izboljšanje kakovosti življenjskega sloga starostnikov z obstipacijo : diplomsko delo
ID Staniša, Lucija (Author), ID Pajnič, Manca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, ID Vettorazzi, Renata (Reviewer)

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Abstract
Uvod: Pri starejših je zaprtje pogost simptom, ki vpliva na kakovost življenja. Čeprav zaprtje ni fiziološka posledica staranja, lahko zmanjšana gibljivost, zdravila in pridružene bolezni prispevajo k razširjenosti pri starejših. Sodobne definicije prepoznajo zaprtje kot polisimptomatsko motnjo, vključno z različnimi vidiki motene defekacije. V patogenezo spadajo različni dejavniki, vključno z vrsto prehrane, genetske nagnjenosti gibljivosti debelega črevesja, absorpcijo, socialno-ekonomski status ter biološki in farmakološki dejavniki. Diagnostične in terapevtske možnosti igrajo ključno vlogo pri zdravljenju obstipacije. Trenutne smernice priporočajo postopen pristop pri zdravljenju kroničnega zaprtja. Še vedno potekajo razprave o časovnem razporedu teh diagnostičnih in terapevtskih algoritmov. Namen: S pomočjo strokovne in znanstvene literature želimo predstaviti vzroke in simptome obstipacije pri starostnikih in kako preprečiti nastanek le-te z izboljšanjem življenjskega sloga s poudarkom na prehrani in gibanju. Raziskani so vplivi preventivnih dejavnikov za preprečevanje obstipacije v starosti. Metode dela: Za nastanek diplomskega dela je bil narejen pregled domače in tuje strokovne in znanstvene literature, objavljene od leta 2015 dalje. Literatura je bila iskana v podatkovnih bazah: COBISS, Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL in iskalnikom Pubmed v časovnem obdobju od junija 2021 do aprila 2022. V bazah je bila literatura iskana v slovenskem in angleškem jeziku s pomočjo ključnih besed: kronično zaprtje, zdravstvena nega, geriatrija, oskrba, kronične bolezni, defekacija. Rezultati: V zadnjih nekaj desetletjih se je pričakovana življenjska doba po vsem svetu močno povečala; s tem smo bili postavljeni pred izziv, kako učinkovito izboljšati ali preprečiti kronična obolenja starostnikov, kot je obstipacija. S preventivnimi ukrepi za preprečevanje obstipacije in ozaveščanjem starejše populacije o uravnoteženem življenjskem slogu se prevalenca obstipacije starostnikov lahko zmanjša. Razprava in zaključek: Prevalenca obstipacije v splošni populaciji je 16 %, zato so diagnostične in terapevtske možnosti pomembne za zdravljenje kroničnega zaprtja. Boljše razumevanje patofiziologije kroničnega zaprtja in informacije o učinkovitosti in varnosti farmakološkega sredstva lahko pomagajo zdravstvenim delavcem in pacientom pri zdravljenju in obvladovanju simptomov zaprtja.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:diplomska dela, zdravstvena nega, kronično zaprtje, gerontologija, nefarmakološke metode, kronične bolezni, defekacija
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:ZF - Faculty of Health Sciences
Place of publishing:Ljubljana
Publisher:[L. Staniša]
Year:2022
Number of pages:33 str.
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-139846 This link opens in a new window
UDC:616-083
COBISS.SI-ID:120673283 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:08.09.2022
Views:746
Downloads:143
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Improving the quality of the lifestyle in the elderly with constipation : diploma work
Abstract:
Introduction: Constipation is a common symptom in the elderly and affects their quality of life. Even though constipation is not a physiological consequence of ageing, its high prevalence among the elderly might be caused by reduced mobility, medicine and comorbidities. Modern definitions identify constipation as a polysymptomatic disorder, including different aspects of dysfunctional defecation. The pathogenesis encompasses various factors, including the type of diet, the genetic predisposition to colonic motility, absorption, socioeconomic status and biological and pharmacological factors. Diagnostic and therapeutic options play a key role in treating constipation. Current guidelines recommend a gradual approach to treating chronic constipation. There are still ongoing debates about the proper schedule of such diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms. Purpose: By means of scholarly and scientific literature, we wish to present the causes and symptoms of constipation in the elderly, and how to prevent constipation by improving their lifestyle, focusing on diet and physical exercise. We will research the impact of preventive factors on preventing constipation in old age. Methods: In order to write the diploma thesis, we reviewed domestic and foreign scholarly and scientific literature published since 2015. We searched for literature in the following databases: COBISS, Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL and the Pubmed search engine for the period from June 2021 to April 2022. In the databases we searched for literature in the Slovenian and English language using the following keywords: chronic constipation, nursing, geriatrics, care, chronic diseases, defecation. Results: Over the last few decades, life expectancy has increased considerably around the world, thus posing the challenge of how to effectively improve or prevent chronic conditions in the elderly, such as constipation. Through preventive measures for preventing constipation and by raising the awareness of the elderly population about a balanced lifestyle, we could reduce the prevalence of constipation among the elderly. Discussion and conclusion: The prevalence of constipation in the general population is 16 %, which is why diagnostic and therapeutic options are important for treating chronic constipation. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic constipation and information about the effectiveness and safety of a pharmacological agent could help healthcare professionals and patients in treating and managing constipation symptoms.

Keywords:diploma theses, nursing care, chronic constipation, gerontology, non-pharmaceutical methods, chronic diseases, defecation

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