In-process path replanning and online layer height control through deposition arc current for gas metal arc based additive manufacturing
ID Ščetinec, Aljaž (Author), ID Klobčar, Damjan (Author), ID Bračun, Drago (Author)

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Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) is recently receiving increasing attention as it offers a way to produce parts on a meter scale with high deposition rates and low production and capital costs. A major challenge in WAAM is the inherently variable layer height, which causes geometric inaccuracies in the final product. This paper proposes an on-line layer height control and in-process toolpath replanning for Gas Metal Arc (GMA) WAAM system, which enables better geometric accuracy when depositing tall shell parts. Deposition arc current and voltage were considered as control variables for layer height control. Arc current proved to be a more suitable control variable due to its higher sensitivity and higher correlation with changes in the contact tip to work distance. Different types of layer height controllers were developed and evaluated by depositing 30-layer high thin walls. Additionally, a re-slice algorithm was developed and implemented in the system controller. It compares the deposited section of the part to the CAD model after each layer has been built. The algorithm replans (re-slices) the toolpath to ensure better geometric accuracy of the finished part when the deviation exceeds the maximum allowable threshold. A 160 mm high case study part was manufactured and 3D scanned to demonstrate the novelty of the developed system. Results show that the layer height control keeps distance between the welding torch and the part surface during the deposition. Re-slice control, combined with layer height control, enables the manufacture of parts with correct final geometry.

Keywords:GMAW WAAM, closed-loop control, layer height, toolpath planning, arc current sensing, thin-walled parts
Work type:Article
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Number of pages:Str. 1169-1179
Numbering:Vol. 64
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-138457 This link opens in a new window
ISSN on article:1526-6125
DOI:10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.02.038 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:54240259 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:21.07.2022
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Journal of manufacturing processes
Shortened title:J. manuf. process.
Publisher:Elsevier, Society of Manufacturing Engineers
COBISS.SI-ID:1281557 This link opens in a new window


License:CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Description:The most restrictive Creative Commons license. This only allows people to download and share the work for no commercial gain and for no other purposes.

Secondary language

Keywords:MIG/MAG WAAM, zaprtozančno krmiljenje, generacija poti, merjenje jakosti, varilni tok, tankostenski izdelki


Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P2-0270
Name:Proizvodni sistemi, laserske tehnologije in spajanje materialov

Funder:Other - Other funder or multiple funders
Funding programme:Daihen Corporation

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