Basic characteristics of waxes and their classification are described in this contribution. Furthermore, basic prop-
erties and potential uses of the most important waxes (bee, carnauba, montan, shellac, paraffin and synthetic wax) are
described. These waxes are used in wood industry predominately due to their water repellency. Use of water repellents in wood industry is rather frequent procedure in order to limit water penetration and to prevent fungal infestation. Paraffin wax in combination with biocides and resins is the most commonly used for this purpose. However, waxes do not form chemical bonds with wood, but there are only weak Van der Waals bonds formed. This is the main reason for the fact, that wax treated surfaces lose hydrophobic properties within time.