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Transition dates from earlywood to latewood and early phloem to late phloem in Norway spruce
ID Gričar, Jožica (Author), ID Čufar, Katarina (Author), ID Eler, Klemen (Author), ID Gryc, Vladimír (Author), ID Vavrčík, Hanuš (Author), ID De Luis, Martin (Author), ID Prislan, Peter (Author)

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Abstract
Climate change will affect radial growth patterns of trees, which will result in different forest productivity, wood properties, and timber quality. While many studies have been published on xylem phenology and anatomy lately, little is known about the phenology of earlywood and latewood formation, also in relation to cambial phenology. Even less information is available for phloem. Here, we examined year-to-year variability of the transition dates from earlywood to latewood and from early phloem to late phloem in Norway spruce (Picea abies) from three temperate sites, two in Slovenia and one in the Czech Republic. Data on xylem and phloem formation were collected during 2009–2011. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the specific contribution of growth rate and duration on wood and phloem production, separately for early and late formed parts. We found significant differences in the transition date from earlywood to latewood between the selected sites, but not between growth seasons in trees from the same site. It occurred in the first week of July at PAN and MEN and more than two weeks later at RAJ. The duration of earlywood formation was longer than that of latewood formation; from 31.4 days at PAN to 61.3 days at RAJ. In phloem, we found differences in transition date from early phloem to late phloem also between the analysed growth seasons; from 2.5 weeks at PAN to 4 weeks at RAJ Compared to the transition from earlywood to latewood the transition from early phloem to late phloem occurred 25–64 days earlier. There was no significant relationship between the onset of cambial cell production and the transition dates. The findings are important to better understand the inter-annual variability of these phenological events in spruce from three contrasting temperate sites, and how it is reflected in xylem and phloem anatomy.

Language:English
Keywords:Picea abies, xylem formation, phloem formation, cambium, tracheid, sieve cell, conifer, temperate environment
Work type:Article (dk_c)
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2021
Publication status in journal:Published
Article version:Publisher's version of article
Number of pages:14 str.
Numbering:Vol. 12, iss. 3, art. 331
UDC:630*81
ISSN on article:1999-4907
DOI:10.3390/f12030331 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:55767811 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:01.03.2022
Views:152
Downloads:37
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Forests
Shortened title:Forests
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1999-4907
COBISS.SI-ID:3872166 This link opens in a new window

Licences

License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:11.03.2021

Secondary language

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:Picea abiess, nastanek ksilema, nastanek floema, kambij

Projects

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:P4-0107
Name:Gozdna biologija, ekologija in tehnologija

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:P4-0015
Name:Les in lignocelulozni kompoziti

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:P4-0085
Name:Agroekosistemi

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:V4-2017
Name:Izboljšanje konkurenčnosti slovenske gozdno-lesne verige v kontekstu podnebnih sprememb in prehoda v nizkoogljično družbo

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:J4-2541
Name:Vpliv podnebnih sprememb na dinamiko akumulacije lesne biomase bukve in smreke v Sloveniji in ovrednotenje s tem povezanih potencialov rasti biogospodarstva

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:V4-1419
Name:Racionalna raba lesa listavcev s poudarkom na bukovini

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project number:Z4-7318
Name:Vpliv klimatskih sprememb na kambijevo aktivnost, nastajanje in zgradbo lesa ter produktivnost bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.) in smreke (Picea abies L.) v Sloveniji

Funder:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Funding programme:Spanish Science and Innovation Ministry (MICINN), ELENA
Project number:CGL2012-31668

Funder:EC - European Commission
Funding programme:FEDER

Funder:EC - European Commission
Funding programme:European Social Fund

Funder:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Funding programme:Czech Republic
Project number:CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0265
Name:Indicators of Trees Vitality

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