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Vpliv pesticidov in okužbe s pršico Varroa destructor na izražanje genov, povezanih z imunostjo, pri medonosni čebeli delavki Apis mellifera
ID Pirnat, Tanja (Author), ID Narat, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, ID Gregorc, Aleš (Co-mentor)

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Abstract
Naš raziskovalni problem se je nanašal na vprašanja, kako učinkujejo pesticidi in okužbe s patogeni na čebele na molekularnem nivoju in v različnih razvojnih stopnjah čebel. Naše zanimanje je pritegnila predvsem interakcija različnih pesticidov (tiametoksam, imidakloprid, kumafos in prokloraz) in pršice Varroa destructor saj je njihov sočasen pojav v čebeljih družinah skoraj neizogiben. Z metodo verižne reakcije polimeraze v realnem času smo preučevali nivo izražanja genov, povezanih z imunostjo pri čebelah, ki so bile izpostavljene pesticidom in/ali varoji. V prvem delu raziskave smo odkrili, da že sami pesticidi spremenijo nivo izražanja imunskih genov čebel v primerjavi s kontrolno skupino. Prav tako se je spremenil tudi vzorec izražanja preučevanih genov z samim razvojem čebel, ki so bile izpostavljene pesticidom v fazi ličink. V nadaljevanju smo preučevali spremembe v izražanju imunskih genov pri čebelah, ki so bile okužene z varojami in hkrati izpostavljene pesticidom. Ob hkratni izpostavljenosti stresorjema se je pojavila sprememba v vzorcu izražanja imunskih genov v primerjavi s kontrolnimi skupinami in skupinami čebel izpostavljenim le pesticidom. Z opravljenimi raziskavami smo dokazali, da se pri čebelah ne pojavi stalna supresija imunskega sistema, temveč pride tudi do povišanega izražanja nekaterih preučevanih genov. Očitno je, da se izražanje imunskih genov s časom spreminja, zato se ni pojavil noben splošen vzorec izražanja, ki bi ga lahko posplošili za vse preučevane stresorje na čebele.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:animalna genetika, Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor, pesticidi, imunski sistem, izražanje genov
Work type:Doctoral dissertation (mb31)
Typology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2021
Publisher:[T. Pirnat]
Place:Ljubljana
UDC:638.12:601.4:577.27:632.95.024(043.3)
COBISS.SI-ID:92752387 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:08.01.2022
Views:122
Downloads:23
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Influence of pesticides and mite Varroa destructor on immune-related gene expression in honey bee worker Apis mellifera
Abstract:
In this thesis, we addressed the question how pesticides and pathogen infections affect honey bees at the molecular level and at different developmental stages. Our interest was attracted by the interaction of different pesticides (thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, coumaphos and prochloraz) and the Varroa destructor mite as their simultaneous occurrence in honey bee colonies is almost inevitable. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the expression of genes associated with immunity in honey bees using real time polymerase chain reaction method. In the first part of our study we found that pesticides alone alter the level of immune gene expression compared to the control group, and that the expression pattern of studied genes changes with honey bee development. In second part of our study, we examined changes in immune gene expression of honey bees exposed to pesticides and varroa mites. When honey bees were simultaneously exposed to pesticides and varroa mites, their immune system change its expression in comparison to control group and experimental groups exposed to pesticides only. Our results do not show only persistent suppression of honey bee immune system, but also demonstrate increased expression of several immune related genes when honey bees are exposed to studied stressors. The expression of immune genes changes over time, therefore no general pattern of expression has emerged that could be generalized to all of the honey bee studied stressors. Our research is also a good starting point for further research that could examine the interaction and impact of each stressor on honey bees in more detail.

Keywords:animal genetics, Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor, pesticides, immune system, gene expression

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