The diploma thesis compares the effect of shallow conservation tillage (up to a depth of 10 cm, plant residues remain partly on the soil surface) on soil properties compared to conventional tillage with plow (tillage depth 0 – 28 cm; bare surface without residues after tillage). Data were obtained in two field trials where we compared both tillage systems continuously since 2011: on shallow silty-loamy soils in Moškanjci on the alluvium of the Quaternary Drava gravel (site 'Mamino') and on deep alluvial gley, silty-clay soils in Mezgovci on the alluvium of the Pesnica River (site 'Kumrovo'). We also evaluated the effect of deep soil loosening (loosening depth to a depth of about 40 cm), which was carried out in both trials and for both tillage types before the start of the experiment in summer 2011. After the oilseed rape harvest in July 2014, we measured water infiltration and mechanical resistance and collected undisturbed soil samples and determined soil volume density and soil water capacity. We found that conservation tillage had a positive effect on soil, despite the relatively short, three-year duration of the experiment. Infiltration capacity, soil porosity and mechanical resistance increased during conservation tillage. Soil treated in this way is more load-bearing and less likely to sink under the wheels of heavy farm machinery. Yield was higher on conservation tillage (5 % more on 'Kumrovo' and 11 % on 'Mamino'). Deep loosening of the soil showed no significant effect on yield or physical properties of the soil.