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Pojav toksoplazmoze v Sloveniji in njen pomen v nosečnosti : diplomsko delo
ID Gajšek, Katarina (Author), ID Zore, Anamarija (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, ID Mivšek, Ana Polona (Reviewer)

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Abstract
Uvod: Toksoplazmoza je bolezen, ki jo povzroča zajedavec Toxoplasma gondii ter se pojavlja povsod po svetu. Ljudje se najpogosteje okužijo preko surovega ali slabo termično obdelanega mesa, z zaužitjem okužene vode, sadja, zelenjave, preko kontaminirane zemlje ali stika z okuženimi mačjimi iztrebki. Za ugotavljanje okužbe nosečnice se v Sloveniji izvaja presejalno testiranje na toksoplazmozo. V primeru okužbe je potrebno le-to najprej potrditi z nadaljnjimi testi, nato pa nosečnico zdraviti z ustrezno terapijo. V primeru vertikalnega prenosa okužbe na plod, se po rojstvu zdravi tudi novorojenčka. Za zdravljenje se najpogosteje uporabljajo spiramicin, pirimetamin in sulfadiazin. Okužbo je v prvi vrsti potrebno preprečevati ter izvajati rutinsko presejalno testiranje. Namen: Namen diplomske naloge je na podlagi dostopnih podatkov ugotoviti, kakšna je pojavnost toksoplazmoze med nosečnicami in novorojenčki v Sloveniji ter ali se je z leti pojavnost le-te zvišala ali znižala. Metode dela: Uporabili smo deskriptivno metodo dela. Predstavili smo informacije o parazitu Toxoplasma gondii ter o njegovem vplivu na nosečnico in novorojenčka. Informacije o incidenci in prevalenci smo črpali tudi iz podatkovnega portala NIJZ, saj je toksoplazmoza prijavljiva bolezen. Literaturo smo iskali v podatkovnih bazah PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect ter Wiley Online Library. Rezultati: Prekuženost s parazitom Toxoplasma gondii med nosečnicami v Sloveniji po starejših podatkih znaša 34 %. Pojavnost primarne toksoplazmoze v nosečnosti so nazadnje raziskovali leta 2004. Ob zadnjem merjenju je le-ta znašala 0,31 %. Pojavnost prirojene toksoplazmoze v Sloveniji je okoli 1 na 10.000 živorojenih otrok. Razprava in zaključek: Na podlagi starejših rezultatov in stanja v Avstriji lahko sklepamo, da se pojavnost primarne toksoplazmoze z leti še naprej niža. Incidenca prirojene toksoplazmoze v Sloveniji je z leti upadla. To lahko v veliki meri pripišemo rutinskemu presejanju nosečnic na toksoplazmozo. Okužba s Toxoplasma gondii v svetovnem merilu bolj kot kadarkoli predstavlja javnozdravstveni problem. Najpomembnejši pristop k spopadanju s to okužbo je preventiva, presejalno testiranje ter v primeru okužbe nosečnice, takojšnje zdravljenje.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:diplomska dela, babištvo, toksoplazmoza, Toxoplasma gondii, primarna okužba v nosečnosti, prirojena toksoplazmoza, presejalno testiranje
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:ZF - Faculty of Health Sciences
Place of publishing:Ljubljana
Publisher:[K. Gajšek]
Year:2021
Number of pages:32 str.
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-131752 This link opens in a new window
UDC:618.2/.7
COBISS.SI-ID:79213315 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:03.10.2021
Views:1426
Downloads:313
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Toxoplasmosis in Slovenia and its' meaning in pregnancy : diploma work
Abstract:
Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is a disease, caused by a parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Humans usually get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat, by ingesting contaminated water, fruits, vegetables, through contact with contaminated soil or infected cat faeces. The infection can also be transmitted through transplanted organs, blood transfusions or through infected mother to the fetus. If a woman gets infected for the first time during pregnancy, this is called a primary infection. To determine a pregnant woman's infection, toxoplasmosis screening is performed. If the infection is confirmed, the pregnant woman should be treated immediately with appropriate therapy. If the infection gets vertically transmitted to the fetus, the newborn also has to be treated after birth. Most common drugs in use for treating toxoplasmosis are Spiramycin, Pyrimethamine and Sulfadiazine. Prevention is the most important. We need to educate women on how to protect themselves from infection while also screen them for toxoplasmosis. Purpose: The purpose of this diploma thesis is to determine based on existing research and available data, the incidence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and newborns in Slovenia and whether its incidence has increased or decreased over the years. Methods: We used a descriptive method of work. We presented information about toxoplasmosis and its’ impact on pregnant women and newborns. We also drew information from the NIJZ data portal. We searched for English and Slovenian literature, with help from PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Wiley Online Library databases. Restrictive criteria in the search were full accessibility of articles, linguistic relevance and relevance of the content of articles. Results: The incidence of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnancy was last investigated in 2004. Data shows that the incidence of PTN in Slovenia increased sharply, but then began to decline and at the last measurement amounted to 0.31%. Congenital toxoplasmosis is about 1 in 10 000 live births in Slovenia, which is similar to Austria. Discussion and conclusion: Based on older research and the situation in Austria, we can conclude that the incidence of PTN has continued to decline over the years. The incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis in Slovenia has also decreased significantly over the years, which can be largely attributed to the mandatory screening of pregnant women for toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis infection is still a global public health problem. The most important approach to dealing with this infection is primarily prevention, screening and, in the case of a pregnant woman's infection, immediate treatment.

Keywords:diploma theses, midwifery, toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii, primary infection in pregnancy, congenital toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmosis screening

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