Ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B and equinatoxins : structure, function and pathophysiological effects of these pore-forming proteins
ID Frangež, Robert (Author), ID Šuput, Dušan (Author), ID Molgó, Jordi (Author), ID Benoit, Evelyne (Author)

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Acidic ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B (OlyA/PlyB, formerly known as ostreolysin (Oly), and basic 20 kDa equinatoxins (EqTs) are cytolytic proteins isolated from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and the sea anemone Actinia equina, respectively. Both toxins, although from different sources, share many similar biological activities: (i) colloid-osmotic shock by forming pores in cellular and artificial membranes enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin; (ii) increased vascular endothelial wall permeability in vivo and perivascular oedema; (iii) dose-dependent contraction of coronary vessels; (iv) haemolysis with pronounced hyperkalaemia in vivo; (v) bradycardia, myocardial ischemia and ventricular extrasystoles accompanied by progressive fall of arterial blood pressure and respiratory arrest in rodents. Both types of toxins are haemolytic within nanomolar range concentrations, and it seems that hyperkalaemia plays an important role in toxin cardiotoxicity. However, it was observed that the haemolytically more active EqT III is less toxic than EqT I, the most toxic and least haemolytic EqT. In mice, EqT II is more than 30 times more toxic than OlyA/PlyB when applied intravenously. These observations imply that haemolysis with hyperkalaemia is not the sole cause of the lethal activity of both toxins. Additional mechanisms responsible for lethal action of the two toxins are direct effects on heart, coronary vasoconstriction and related myocardial hypoxia. In this review, we appraise the pathophysiological mechanisms related to the chemical structure of OlyA/PlyB and EqTs, as well as their toxicity.

Keywords:ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B, equinatoxins, pore-forming proteins, biological effects, pore forming cytotoxic proteins, relative biological effectiveness
Work type:Article
Typology:1.02 - Review Article
Organization:VF - Veterinary Faculty
MF - Faculty of Medicine
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Number of pages:10 str.
Numbering:Vol. 9, iss. 4, art. 128
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-131155 This link opens in a new window
ISSN on article:2072-6651
DOI:10.3390/toxins9040128 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:4296570 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:23.09.2021
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Title:Toxins : Elektronski vir
Shortened title:Toxins
COBISS.SI-ID:517594649 This link opens in a new window


License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:05.04.2017


Funder:Other - Other funder or multiple funders
Funding programme:Proteus
Project number:BI-FR-PROTEUS/17-18-001, 37446QC

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P4-0053
Name:Endokrini, imunski in encimski odzivi pri zdravih in bolnih živalih

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P3-0019
Name:Aplikativna in bazična fiziologija in patofiziologija v medicini

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