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Ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B and equinatoxins : structure, function and pathophysiological effects of these pore-forming proteins
Frangež, Robert (Author), Šuput, Dušan (Author), Molgó, Jordi (Author), Benoit, Evelyne (Author)

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Abstract
Acidic ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B (OlyA/PlyB, formerly known as ostreolysin (Oly), and basic 20 kDa equinatoxins (EqTs) are cytolytic proteins isolated from the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and the sea anemone Actinia equina, respectively. Both toxins, although from different sources, share many similar biological activities: (i) colloid-osmotic shock by forming pores in cellular and artificial membranes enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin; (ii) increased vascular endothelial wall permeability in vivo and perivascular oedema; (iii) dose-dependent contraction of coronary vessels; (iv) haemolysis with pronounced hyperkalaemia in vivo; (v) bradycardia, myocardial ischemia and ventricular extrasystoles accompanied by progressive fall of arterial blood pressure and respiratory arrest in rodents. Both types of toxins are haemolytic within nanomolar range concentrations, and it seems that hyperkalaemia plays an important role in toxin cardiotoxicity. However, it was observed that the haemolytically more active EqT III is less toxic than EqT I, the most toxic and least haemolytic EqT. In mice, EqT II is more than 30 times more toxic than OlyA/PlyB when applied intravenously. These observations imply that haemolysis with hyperkalaemia is not the sole cause of the lethal activity of both toxins. Additional mechanisms responsible for lethal action of the two toxins are direct effects on heart, coronary vasoconstriction and related myocardial hypoxia. In this review, we appraise the pathophysiological mechanisms related to the chemical structure of OlyA/PlyB and EqTs, as well as their toxicity.

Language:English
Keywords:ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B, equinatoxins, pore-forming proteins, biological effects, pore forming cytotoxic proteins, relative biological effectiveness
Work type:Article (dk_c)
Tipology:1.02 - Review Article
Organization:VF - Veterinary Faculty
MF - Faculty of Medicine
Year:2017
Number of pages:10 str.
Numbering:Vol. 9, iss. 4, art. 128
UDC:577
ISSN on article:2072-6651
DOI:10.3390/toxins9040128 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:4296570 This link opens in a new window
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Downloads:25
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Toxins
Shortened title:Toxins
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:2072-6651
COBISS.SI-ID:517594649 This link opens in a new window

Document is financed by a project

Funder:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Funding Programme:Proteus
Project no.:BI-FR-PROTEUS/17-18-001, 37446QC

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:P4-0053
Name:Endokrini, imunski in encimski odzivi pri zdravih in bolnih živalih

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:P3-0019
Name:Aplikativna in bazična fiziologija in patofiziologija v medicini

Licences

License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:05.04.2017

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