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Vloga ženske v zgodnjem indijskem budizmu
Bizjak, Maja (Author), Zalta, Anja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Petek, Nina (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Z ustanovitvijo budizma theravāda v Indiji okoli 6. in 5. stoletja pred našim štetjem je vpliv Siddhārthe Gautame, tako imenovanega Buddhe, povzročil ključne spremembe v dojemanju ženske in njene vloge v takratni indijski družbi. Ženska je končno lahko vstopila v budistično skupnost saṅgha. V zaključnem delu me je predvsem zanimalo, kakšna je bila vloga ženske kot nune (bhikkhunī), matere in žene ter kakšna je bila njena spolna vloga v zgodnjem indijskem budizmu theravāda. S pomočjo analize in interpretacije primarnih in sekundarnih virov sem poskušala odkriti, na kakšen način, če sploh, se je skozi družbene vloge kazala ženska podrejenost. Na začetku dela sem predstavila osrednje doktrine indijskega budizma theravāda, nato pa sem se lotila primerjave pravil za nune in pravil za menihe v Vinayapiṭaki, prvi košari budističnih besedil Tipiṭaka. Pri primerjavi pravil se je pokazala spolna diskriminacija, saj so med drugim ženske nune (bhikkhunī) morale upoštevati več pravil kot pa moški menihi (bhikkhuji), prav tako so bile v primeru storjenega kaznivega dejanja bolj kaznovane kot pa menihi. Pravila so prav tako pokazala, da so bile ženske, ki so vstopile v skupnost saṅgha, v podrejenem položaju, saj so bile na več načinov odvisne od moških menihov. V osrednjem delu tega dela sem se ukvarjala z vlogo ženske v začetkih oblikovanja budizma v Indiji. Podrobneje sem pregledala, kakšna so bila pričakovanja takratne družbe do ženske in kako se je slednja znašla v vlogi nune, matere in žene. S pomočjo zgodnjih budističnih besedil sem analizirala tudi žensko seksualnost in obravnavanje ženskega telesa v času nastajanja budizma theravāda. V zaključku opažam, da se je od ženske v tem času še vedno pričakovalo, da bo postala najprej dobra žena, nato pa še skrbna mati. Ženska je kot žena morala ustrezati zahtevam moža, kot mati pa je morala ustrezno poskrbeti za otroke, pri tem pa opravljati tudi vsakdanja gospodinjska opravila. Čeprav je bil vstop v samostanski red za žensko dovoljen, se mnoge ženske za to niso odločile ravno zaradi strahu pred izgubo ugodnega družbenega statusa. Ženska je bila tako v času zgodnjega budizma theravāda še vedno najbolj cenjena v vlogi matere in žene; to pa se je od nje navsezadnje tudi pričakovalo.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:budizem theravāda, Indija, ženska vloga, Vinayapiṭaka, bhikkhunī
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Organization:FF - Faculty of Arts
Year:2021
Publisher:[M. Bizjak]
Number of pages:52 str.
COBISS.SI-ID:81979651 This link opens in a new window
Views:35
Downloads:9
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The Role of Woman in Early Indian Buddhism
Abstract:
With the establishment of theravāda Buddhism in India around the 6th and 5th centuries BC, Siddhārtha Gautama, the so-called Buddha, enabled crucial changes in the perception of a woman and her role in Indian society at the time. A woman could finally join the Buddhist community of saṅgha. In the concluding part, my focus was on the role of a woman as a nun (bhikkhunī), a mother and a wife and her gender role in early Indian Buddhism theravāda. Through the interpretation and analysis of primary and secondary sources, I was discovering how female subordination was present – if it was present at all – through her social roles. At the beginning of my thesis, I have presented the central doctrines of Indian Buddhism theravāda, and then compared the difference in rules and regulations for nuns and the rules for monks in Vinayapiṭaki – the first basket of Tipiṭaka Buddhist texts. Upon detailed research of the rules and regulations, gender discrimination was evident, as, among other things, female nuns (bhikkhunīs) had to follow more rules and regulations as opposed to male monks (bhikkhus), and in the occurrence of offence, they have been punished more severely than monks. Additionally, the research of the rules revealed that the women who joined the saṅgha community were in a subordinate position, as they had to rely on male monks in many instances. In the central part of my thesis, I have researched a woman’s role during Buddhism’s formation in India. I have thoroughly examined society's expectations towards a woman at that time and her role as a nun, a mother and a wife. What is more, I have also analysed female sexuality and the treatment of the female body during the emergence of theravāda Buddhism, with the help of early Buddhist texts. In the conclusion of my thesis, I note that during the time of theravāda Buddhism, a woman's primary role was first as a good wife and secondly as a caring mother. As a woman, she had to meet her husband’s demands, and as a mother, she had to take proper care of her children, and on top of that, it was also expected of her to perform daily household chores. Even though women were allowed to enter the convent, many have chosen not to do so for fear of losing their favourable social status. Therefore, the role of a mother and wife was still the most valuable role that a woman played during the time of early theravāda Buddhism, and it was ultimately also expected of her to do so.

Keywords:Buddhism theravāda, India, women's role, Vinayapiṭaka, bhikkhunī

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