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Contribution of drinking water softeners to daily phosphate intake in Slovenia
ID Jereb, Gregor (Author), ID Poljšak, Borut (Author), ID Eržen, Ivan (Author)

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Abstract
The cumulative phosphate intake in a typical daily diet is high and, according to several studies, already exceeds recommended values. The exposure of the general population to phosphorus via drinking water is generally not known. One of the hidden sources of phosphorus in a daily diet is sodium polyphosphate, commonly used as a drinking water softener. In Slovenia, softening of drinking water is carried out exclusively within the internal (household) drinking water supply systems to prevent the accumulation of limescale. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sodium phosphates in the drinking water in Slovenia in different types of buildings, to determine residents’ awareness of the presence of chemical softeners in their drinking water, and to provide an exposure assessment on the phosphorus intake from drinking water. In the current study, the presence of phosphates in the samples of drinking water was determined using a spectrophotometric method with ammonium molybdate. In nearly half of the samples, the presence of phosphates as water softeners was confirmed. The measured concentrations varied substantially from 0.2 mg PO$_4$/L to 24.6 mg PO$_4$/L. Nearly 70% of the respondents were not familiar with the exact data on water softening in their buildings. It follows that concentrations of added phosphates should be controlled and the consumers should be informed of the added chemicals in their drinking water. The health risks of using sodium polyphosphate as a drinking water softener have not been sufficiently investigated and assessed. It is highly recommended that proper guidelines and regulations are developed and introduced to protect human health from adverse effects of chemicals in water intended for human consumption.

Language:English
Keywords:drinking water, softening, polyphosphates, exposure assessment
Work type:Article (dk_c)
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2017
Publication status in journal:Published
Article version:Publisher's version of article
Number of pages:10 str.
Numbering:Vol. 14, iss. 10, art. 1186
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-131012 This link opens in a new window
UDC:614.777:661.635.68
ISSN on article:1660-4601
DOI:10.3390/ijerph14101186 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:5316971 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:21.09.2021
Views:280
Downloads:107
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:International journal of environmental research and public health
Shortened title:Int. j. environ. res. public health
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1660-4601
COBISS.SI-ID:1818965 This link opens in a new window

Licences

License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:06.10.2017

Secondary language

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:pitna voda, mehčanje vode, polifosfati, ocena izpostavljenosti

Projects

Funder:EC - European Commission
Funding programme:European Social Fund

Funder:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Funding programme:Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic of Slovenia
Project number:322/2012

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije
Project number:P3-0388
Name:Mehanizmi varovanja zdravja

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