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Posttravmatska stresna motnja pri reševalcih: dejavniki tveganja in tehnike spoprijemanja : diplomsko delo
Stopar, Fran (Author), Sotler, Robert (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, Kavčič, Tina (Co-mentor), Kramar, Janez (Reviewer)

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Abstract
Uvod: Stres je neravnovesje med zaznavanjem zahtev in posameznikove predstave o sposobnosti odziva na njih. Telo se preko stresa skuša prilagoditi na stresorje v okolju s fiziološkimi, čustvenimi, kognitivnimi in vedenjskimi odzivi, ki se navzven kažejo kot simptomi stresa. Kadar je nivo stresa bistveno višji od posameznikove sposobnosti obvladovanja, lahko pride do nastanka posttravmatske stresne motnje (PTSM). PTSM je duševna motnja, ki lahko nastane pri posameznikih, ki so bili žrtev ali priča različnim travmatskim dogodkom. Pogosto se pojavi v povezavi s stanji, kot so depresija, uživanje substanc, motnje spomina, telesne in duševne težave. Delo reševalca v nujni medicinski pomoči zajema izpostavljenost nevsakdanjim travmatskim dogodkom in drugim stresorjem, s katerimi se mora spopadati, zato so reševalci še posebej podvrženi možnosti za nastanek PTSM. Potreba po preprečevanju in nudenju pomoči pri PTSM je pri reševalcih torej velika. Namen: V diplomskem delu smo s pomočjo pregleda literature želeli predstaviti PTSM in njeno prisotnost v poklicu reševalca v nujni medicinski pomoči. Želeli smo tudi ugotoviti, kateri so najpogostejši vzroki oz. dejavniki za nastanek posttravmatske stresne motnje pri reševalcih in katere tehnike spoprijemanja so najpogostejše in najučinkovitejše pri reševalcih, ki so bili izpostavljeni travmatskim dogodkom. Metode dela: Uporabili smo deskriptivno metodo dela s sistematičnim pregledom literature. Literaturo smo iskali v bazah Complementary index, Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, Medline, Pubmed in Psycinfo, preko oddaljenega dostopa Univerze v Ljubljani. Uporabili smo literaturo, ki je bila objavljena od leta 2010 do 2020. Rezultati: V podrobnejšo analizo je bilo vključenih 9 izvirnih znanstvenih člankov v angleškem jeziku. Raziskave dokazujejo, da je PTSM pri reševalcih zelo pogosta. Glavni dejavniki za nastanek PTSM so: visoka raven kroničnega stresa, stres zaradi kritičnih dogodkov, število predhodnih izpostavljanj travmatskim dogodkom in neposredna izpostavljenost dogodkom, depresija in depresivne lastnosti ter nizka osebnostna prožnost. Obstoječe tehnike spoprijemanja s travmatskimi dogodki in stresom med reševalci so: tehnike osredotočene na problem (aktivno spoprijemanje, načrtovanje), prepoznavanje čustev, osredotočanje na izvedbo tehničnih postopkov, ločevanje poklicnega okolja od domačega, medsebojna podpora, razumevanje nemoči in pogovor o dogodku ter socialna opora sodelavca, prijatelja in družinskega člana. Razprava in zaključek: S pregledom literature smo ugotovili, da so v delovnem okolju reševalcev prisotni številni stresorji, ki ustvarjajo stresno okolje in vplivajo na njihovo psihično in fizično zdravje. Ugotovitve so pokazale, da so med stresorji prisotni pomembni dejavniki, ki vplivajo na možnost za nastanek PTSM pri reševalcih. Vpliv teh dejavnikov se odraža z visoko prisotnostjo PTSM med reševalci. Ugotovitve tudi kažejo, da lahko z uporabo učinkovitih tehnik spoprijemanja reševalci obvladujejo stresorje in dejavnike ter tako posledično zmanjšajo možnost za nastanek PTSM. V poklicu reševalca je torej pomembno zgodnje odkrivanje dejavnikov, ki povzročajo nastanek PTSM, in oblikovanje preventivnih programov, s katerimi bi se reševalci učili tehnik spoprijemanja ter imeli možnost celostne psihosocialne pomoči.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:diplomska dela, zdravstvena nega, reševalci, PTSM, posttravmatska stresna motnja, dejavniki za nastanek PTSM, tehnike spoprijemanja
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2021
Publisher:[F. Stopar]
Number of pages:28 str., [4] str. pril.
Place:Ljubljana
UDC:616-083
COBISS.SI-ID:74580995 This link opens in a new window
Views:106
Downloads:12
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Posttraumatic stress disorder in paramedics: risk factors and coping techniques : diploma work
Abstract:
Introduction: Stress is an imbalance between the perception of demands and the individual’s perception of the ability to respond to them. During stress, the body tries to adapt to stressors in the environment through physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses which manifest outwardly as symptoms of stress. When the stress level is substantially higher than the individual's ability to cope it, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can occur. PTSD is a mental disorder that can occur in individuals who have been victims of or witnessed various traumatic events. It is often accompanied by conditions, such as depression, use of substances, memory impairment, physical and mental problems. The work of paramedics in emergency medical care involves exposure to unusual traumatic events and other stressors that they have to deal with, so paramedics are particularly vulnerable to the possibility of developing PTSD. The need to prevent and provide assistance with PTSD is therefore high among paramedics. Purpose: In the diploma work we wanted to present PTSD and its presence in the profession of a paramedic in emergency medical care by reviewing literature. The next aim was to determine the most common causes or factors of posttraumatic stress disorder in paramedics and to discover, which coping techniques are the most common and effective among paramedics, who have been exposed to traumatic events. Methods: We used a descriptive method with a systematic review of the literature. Literature was searched in the Complementary index, Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, Medline, Pubmed and Psycinfo databases, via access from the University of Ljubljana. We used the literature published from 2010 to 2020. Results: Nine original scientific articles in English were included in a more detailed analysis. The research shows that PTSD is very common in paramedics. The main factors for the development of PTSD are: high levels of chronic stress, critical incident stress, the number of previous exposures to traumatic events and direct exposure to events, depression and depressive traits and low personality resilience. Existing techniques for dealing with traumatic events and stress among paramedics are: problem-focused techniques (active coping, planning), emotion recognition, focusing on the implementation of technical procedures. separating professional environment from home life, mutual support, understanding helplessness and talking about the event, social support of a co-worker, friend and family member. Discussion and conclusion: According the reviewed literature, in the working environment of paramedics there are many stressors, which create a stressful environment and affect paramedics’ mental and physical health. We find some important factors that influence the possibility of PTSD in paramedics. The influence of these factors is reflected in the high presence of PTSD among paramedics. The findings suggest that effective coping techniques can help paramedics to control stressors and risk factors, thereby reducing the potential for PTSD. In the profession of a paramedic it is therefore important to detect the factors that cause the development of PTSD as early as possible and to design prevention programs that will help paramedics learn coping techniques and give them the opportunity for comprehensive psychosocial assistance.

Keywords:diploma theses, nursing care, paramedics, PTSD, posttraumatic stress disorder, factors of PTSD, coping techniques

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