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Vpliv imunosenescence pri okužbi z virusom SARS-CoV-2
Marinčič, Maja (Author), Narat, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Imunosenescenca opisuje spremembe imunskega sistema, ki nastanejo med staranjem. Pri prirojeni imunosti imunosenescenca zmanjša sposobnost fagocitoze pri makrofagih, zmanjša število monocitnih in dendritičnih celic in oslabi sposobnost predstavljanja antigenov. V okviru imunosenescence pridobljene imunosti pride do zmanjšanja nabora receptorjev pri celicah T in B, kopičenja nefunkcionalnih celic T ter oslabljenega preklapljanja izotipov celic B. Vse te spremembe lahko ob okužbi s SARS-CoV-2 vodijo v težji potek bolezni. Prisotnost večjih količin citokinov na bazalni ravni z imunosenescentnim imunskim odzivom povzroči manj učinkovito odstranitev virusa SARS-CoV-2. Domneva je, da je imunosenescenten prirojeni imunski odziv s prekomernim proizvajanjem vnetnih citokinov kriv za nastanek citokinske nevihte. Ta vodi v težje zaplete pri COVID-19 in poškodbe pljuč ter drugih organov. Pri starejših obolelih bolezen zelo hitro napreduje, zato je potrebno poznati učinkovite načine pasivnega zdravljenja. Na voljo je več različnih možnosti pasivnega zdravljenja od mehanskega predihavanja, blokiranja citokinov do uporabe krvne plazme prebolevnikov ali monoklonskih protiteles, ki delujejo v smislu specifične pasivne vakcine. Ob izboru zdravljenja je potrebno najprej preučiti celotno zdravstveno stanje pacienta z vsemi pridruženimi boleznimi, saj lahko napačna oblika terapije še poslabša njegovo zdravstveno stanje.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:imunologija, imunosenescenca, SARS-CoV-2
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2021
Publisher:[M. Marinčič]
Place:Ljubljana
UDC:601.4:577.21:577.27:578.72:578.834(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:75401475 This link opens in a new window
Views:86
Downloads:8
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Impact of immunosenescence in infection with SARS-CoV-2
Abstract:
Immunosenescence describes changes in the entire immune system that occur during aging. In innate immunity immunosenescence reduces macrophage activity, reduces number of monocyte and dendritic cells, and deteriorates presentation of antigens. In adaptive immunity immunosenescence causes reduction of receptors in T and B cells and an accumulation of non-functional T cells. These changes with SARS-CoV-2 infection result in a more severe course of the disease. The presence of higher amounts of cytokines with an immunosenescent immune response results in poorer clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Immunosenescent innate immune response with excessive production of inflammatory cytokines causes development of a cytokine storm and more severe complications in COVID-19. It si necessary to know effective ways of passive treatments. There are different passive treatment options available from mechanical respiration, inhibition of cytokines to passive vaccination. During choosing of a treatment for a patient, it is necessary to examine the entire medical condition of the patient with all the associated diagnoses, as the wrong form of therapy can worsen the medical condition.

Keywords:immunology, immunosenescence, SARS-CoV-2

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