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Pomen elektromiografije pri upravljanju bioničnih protez za zgornje ude : diplomsko delo
ID Robnik, Petra (Author), ID Lampe, Tomaž (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, ID Pavlović, Monika (Co-mentor), ID Fošnarič, Miha (Reviewer)

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Abstract
Uvod: Zgornja okončina je kompleksen del telesa, ki ga tvorijo nevrovaskularni snopi, limfe, mišice in kosti, ki se združijo in tvorijo funkcionalno enoto za opravljanje naših vsakodnevnih aktivnosti. Amputacije zgornje okončine vodijo do funkcionalne izgube in prizadanejo bolnika tako fizično kot duševno. Delimo jih na parcialne, disartikulacije v zapestju, transradialne, disartikulacije v komolcu, transhumeralne in disartikulacije v ramenskem sklepu. Za upravljanje mioelektričnih protez se predhodno opravi bionična rekonstrukcija, ki predstavlja obetavno in učinkovito zdravljenje ter obnovo zgornjega uda. S tem posegom se obnovi delovanje okončin in na ta način ponovno vključi pacienta v vsakodnevno življenje. EMG-signali so potrebni za delovanje mioelektrične proteze in merijo električno aktivnost mišičnega vlakna med kontrakcijo in relaksacijo. Cilj bionike je povezati biologijo in inženirstvo – tako so se razvile bionične proteze za zgornje ude, s pomočjo katerih ima uporabnik večji nadzor nad protezo, boljše je njeno delovanje, izboljšana pa je tudi samopodoba pacienta. Namen: Namen diplomskega dela je opraviti pregled strokovne in znanstvene literature, predstaviti uporabnost, prednosti, slabosti uporabe ter samo delovanje bioničnih protez za zgornje ude. Zanima nas tudi, kakšen je pomen elektromiografije pri njihovi uporabi. Metode dela: Literaturo smo iskali v angleškem jeziku v dveh podatkovnih bazah, PubMed in ScienceDirect. Uporabili smo iskalni niz (bionic) AND (prosthetic OR prosthesis) AND (hand OR arm) AND (EMG-signals) NOT (non amputee) NOT (able bodied). Vključili smo prosto dostopne članke objavljene v zadnjih 10 letih ter članke in raziskave, ki vključujejo bionične proteze za zgornje ude in EMG-signale. Rezultati: Pod pogoji, določenimi v metodah dela, smo vključili 7 člankov primernih za naše delo. V vseh raziskavah so vključene amputirane osebe, ki uporabljalo protezo in EMG-signale za njeno delovanje. Zanimalo nas je, kako bionične proteze vplivajo na življenje posameznikov in kakšno je delovanje EMG-signalov. Razprava in zaključek: Prišli smo do ugotovitve, da bionične proteze za zgornje ude znatno izboljšajo življenje posameznikov in njihovo samopodobo, kar so pokazali tudi testi, ki ocenjujejo funkcionalno delovanje rok(e). Pri tem imajo EMG-signali velik pomen, saj dovoljujejo boljši in lažji nadzor nad protezo. Za nadaljnje študije in s tem lažjo primerjavo bi se morali osredotočiti na testiranje enakih protez.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:diplomska dela, ortotika in protetika, bionične roke, protetične roke, robotske roke, EMG signali, bionične proteze
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:ZF - University College of Health Studies
Year:2021
Publisher:[P. Robnik]
Number of pages:28 str.
Place:Ljubljana
UDC:617.3
COBISS.SI-ID:74265859 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:27.08.2021
Views:253
Downloads:41
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The importance of electromyography in the management of bionic prostheses for the upper limbs : diploma work
Abstract:
Introduction: The upper limb is very complex, made up of neurovaskular bundles, lymph, muscles and bones that come together to form a functional unit for performing in our daily activities. Amputations lead to functional loss and affect the patient both physically and mentally. The amputations are divided into partial, disarticulation in the wrist, transradial, disarticulation in the elbow, transhumeral and disarticulation in shoulder joint. For the management of myoelectric prostheses a bionic reconstruction was performed, which represents a promising and effective treatment and reconstruction of the upper limb. This procedure restores limb function and re-integrates the patient into daily life. EMG signals are required for the operation of myoelectric prostheses and mesaure the electrical activity of a muscle fiber during contraction and relaxation. The goal of bionics is to connect biology and engineering, and so upper limb prostheses have been developed and give the user more control over the prosthesis, improve performance and self-esteem. Purpose: The purpose of our diploma work is to reviw the professional and scientific literature to present the usefulness, advantages and disadvantages of use and the operation of bionic prostheses for upper limbs. We are also interested in the importance of electromyography in their use. Methods: We used only English literature found in two databases, PubMed and ScienceDirect. Keywords that we used were (bionic) AND (prosthetic OR prosthesis) AND (hand OR arm) AND (EMG signals) NOT (non amputee) NOT (able bodied). We included free articles from the last 10 years, as well as articles that include bionic prostheses for the upper limbs and EMG signals. Results: Under specified conditions which are listed in methods we included 7 studies appropriate for our work. All studies included amputated individuals who used the prosthesis and EMG signlas to operate with it. We were interested in how bionic prostheses affect the lives of individuals and how EMG signals work. Discussion and conclusion: We found that bionic prostheses for the upper limbs significantly improve the lives of individuals and their self-steem, which was also shown by tests that assess the functional functioning of the hand. EMG signals are a great importance here, as they allow better and easier control of the prosthesis. For further studies, the focus should be on testing similar prostheses so they can be more easily compared.

Keywords:diploma theses, orthotics and prosthetics, bionic hands, prosthetic hands, robotic arms, EMG signals, bionic prostheses

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