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Vpliv cis-heteronormativnega in patriarhalnega družbenega sistema na razkrivanje LGBT+ oseb : diplomsko delo
ID Atanasov, Kaja (Author), ID Zorn, Jelka (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
V svojem diplomskem delu sem raziskovala, kako cis-heteronormativni in patriarhalni družbeni sistem vplivata na LGBT+ ljudi, predvsem v povezavi z razkrivanjem. V teoretičnem delu sem opredelila osnovne pojme, kot so kratica LGBTQIA+, spolna usmerjenost in spolna identiteta. Skozi spolni binarizem sem predstavila razliko med družbenim spolom in spolom, pripisanem ob rojstvu, pri čemer sem razložila tudi interspolnost in spolni izraz. Nato sem se poglobila v družbene sisteme, konstrukcije in norme, ki gradijo svet okoli nas. Na podlagi teh sem razložila družbeno konstrukcijo spola in spolne usmerjenosti, heteronormativnost in cisnormativnost, medikalizacijo, patriarhat in heteropatriarhat, pri slednjem pa sem se ustavila, da bi opisala seksizem, seksualizacijo in hegemono moškost. V zadnjem poglavju teoretičnega dela sem se posvetila homo-bi-transfobiji, (ne)razkrivanju LGBT+ oseb, pri čemer sem posebno pozornost namenila razkritju samim sebi in razkritju staršem. V empiričnem delu sem predstavila ugotovitve, do katerih sem prišla z intervjuvanjem sedmih LGBT+ oseb, do katerih sem prišla z neslučajnostnim priročnim vzorčenjem. Vprašanja so bila predvsem povezana z njihovim razkrivanjem, tako samim sebi kot tudi drugim ljudem, pa tudi z diskriminacijo, ki so jo bile_i deležne_i na podlagi svoje spolne usmerjenosti/identitete, povezana pa so bila tudi s predvidevanji, ki jih ima do njih okolica in njihovimi željami po spremembi družbe. Skozi raziskavo sem spoznala, kako na LGBT+ osebe vplivata cis-heteronormativno in patriarhalno okolje ter druge družbene norme. Ugotovila sem, da poskušajo LGBT+ osebe zaradi tega skrivati svojo spolno usmerjenost in/ali identiteto in da si jo pred razkritjem tudi dlje časa niso priznale, nekatere so celo ponotranjile predsodke o svojih lastnih identitetah. Zaradi družbenih predvidevanj se poskušajo z okolico zliti tako, da prilagajajo svoj spolni izraz. Družba namreč na podlagi spolnega izraza predvideva tako njihovo spolno usmerjenost kot tudi spolno identiteto in njihove zaimke, večkrat pa je to predvidevanje napačno. Ugotovila sem, da je feminilnost v patriarhalni družbi označena za šibko in manjvredno, zaradi česar so ženske, feminilni moški in pa osebe iz spektra transspolnih žensk najpogosteje tarča zatiranja v patriarhalnem in cis-heteronormativnem okolju, kar posledično vpliva na odločitev o razkritju. Da bi LGBT+ osebam lahko pomagale_i in jim odprle_i prostor, da se razkrivajo in s tem zaživijo svoje polno življenje, pa moramo najprej razumeti kompleksnost družbenih norm in konstruktov, ki jih je ustvaril človek, se začeti preizpraševati in kritično razmišljati o svetu, ki nas obdaja in se začeti zavedati, da stvari, ki jih imamo za univerzalno resnične, to včasih niso.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:spol pripisan ob rojstvu, družbeni spol, spolna usmerjenost, spolni izraz, spolna binarnost, hegemona moškost
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper
Typology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:FSD - Faculty of Social Work
Place of publishing:Ljubljana
Publisher:[K. Atanasov]
Year:2021
Number of pages:1 spletni vir (1 datoteka PDF (151 str.))
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-128993 This link opens in a new window
UDC:316.367
COBISS.SI-ID:81256451 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:21.08.2021
Views:1442
Downloads:162
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The Impact of Cis-heteronormative and Patriarchal Social Systems on LGBT+ Coming Out
Abstract:
In my thesis I explored how the cis-heteronormative and patriarchal social systems affect LGBT+ people, especially in relation to coming out. In the theoretical part, I defined basic concepts such as the acronym LGBTQIA+, sexual orientation and gender identity. Through gender binary, I presented the difference between gender and sex assigned at birth, explaining intersex and gender expression. I then delved into the social systems, constructions and norms that build the world around us. Based on these, I explained the social construct of gender and sexual orientation, heteronormativity and cisnormativity, medicalization, patriarchy and heteropatriarchy, and stopped at the latter to describe sexism, sexualization and the hegemony of masculinity. In the last part of the theory I focused on homo-bi-transphobia, the (non)coming out of LGBT+ people, with a personal focus on coming out to oneself and coming out to one's parents. In the empirical part, I present my findings from interviewing seven LGBT+ people, which I reached through non-randomised convenience sampling. The questions were mainly related to their coming out, both to themselves and to other people, but also about the discrimination they have been subjected to on the basis of their sexual orientation/identity, the assumptions made about them by the people around them and their wishes to change the society. Through this, I learnt how LGBT+ people are affected by cis-heteronormative and patriarchal environments and other social norms. I have found out that, because of this, LGBT+ people try to hide their sexual orientation and/or identity, and that they have also spent a long time not acknowledging it before coming out, and even internalising prejudices about their own identities. Social assumptions lead them to try to blend in by adapting their sexual expression. Society makes assumptions about people's sexual orientation, gender identity and pronouns based on their gender expression, and many of these assumptions are wrong. I found that femininity is seen as weak and inferior in a patriarchal society, which leads to stigmatisation of women, feminine men and people on the feminine transgender spectrum, they are most likely targets of oppression in patriarchal and cis-heteronormative environments, which in return influences the decision to come out. But in order to help LGBT+ people and open space for them to come out and live their lives fully, we first need to understand the complexity of social norms and man-made constructs, to start questioning and thinking critically about the world around us, and to begin to realise that the things we think are universally true sometimes they are not.

Keywords:sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender expression, gender binary, hegemonic masculinity

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