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Kritično ovrednotenje avstrijske provincialne farmakopeje iz leta 1794
ID Gerič, Monika (Author), ID Obreza, Aleš (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Magistrsko delo obravnava popravljeno avstrijsko provincialno farmakopejo (Pharmacopoea Austriaco-provincialis Emendata), ki je bila izdana na Dunaju leta 1794. Njeni avtorji so Anton Freiherr von Störck, Joseph Franz von Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin, Johann Michael Schosulan, Wenzel von Czerny, Joseph Basgetha in Karl Josef Offermanns, po poklicu zdravniki oz. lekarnarji. V magistrskem delu smo kritično ovrednotili omenjeno farmakopejo. Zbrali smo slovenske ustreznike originalnih latinskih imen zdravilnih snovi in pripravkov, ki bi v nekaterih primerih ustrezali današnjemu izrazu »zdravilo«. Pri prevajanju materie medice smo imeli manj težav, z izjemo iskanja ustreznih imen za nekatere zdravilne rastline, katerih latinsko ime se je od konca 18. stoletja povsem spremenilo. Poimenovanje zdravilnih pripravkov je pogosto temeljilo na farmacevtski obliki, ki ji je bila dodana informacija o namenu uporabe ali pa o sestavi. Nekatera imena, ki jih prej nismo zasledili v slovenski literaturi, smo sami smiselno prevedli. Kritično smo ovrednotili zdravilne snovi in pripravke, ki so jih uporabljali v takratnem času. Za zdravljenje so največ uporabljali dele zdravilnih rastlin in pripravke iz njih, nekaj je bilo snovi živalskega izvora, nekaj pa anorganskih snovi in organskih molekul, pridobljenih iz rastlinskega materiala, ki kažejo na uporabo »čistih« kemijskih snovi v farmaciji. Sintezno pridobljenih organskih snovi ni bilo, saj je šele tri desetletja kasneje Woehler pripravil sečnino, kot prvo sintezno dobljeno organsko molekulo. Večina zdravilnih rastlin je dobro znanih, velik del se jih še vedno uporablja v farmaciji ali tradicionalni medicini. Nekaterih zaradi dokazane neučinkovitosti, neželenih ali toksičnih učinkov pri uporabi ali preprosto zaradi zmanjšanega interesa za njihovo uporabo, na področju farmacije ne srečamo več. Uporabo številnih takratnih farmacevtskih oblik in pripravkov (roob, trohiski, oksimel) so nadomestile naprednejše oblike, nekatere pa so se ohranile v praktično nespremenjeni sestavi, npr. sirupi, tinkture … Obravnavana farmakopeja je po vsebini in kakovosti primerljiva z ostalimi pomembnimi farmakopejami takratnega časa. Zajema večino takrat znanih pripravkov, ki so jih zdravniki in farmacevti uporabljali v nespremenjeni obliki za zdravljenje ali pa za izdelavo zdravil v sodobnem pomenu besede. Skladno z vsebino takratnih lekarniških knjig so precej natančno opisani postopki njihove priprave.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:Pharmacopoea Austriaco-provincialis emendata, materia medica, zdravilni pripravki, farmacija in medicina v 18. stoletju.
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:FFA - Faculty of Pharmacy
Year:2021
Publication date in RUL:29.06.2021
Views:309
Downloads:61
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Critical assessment of the 1794 Austrian provincial pharmacopoeia
Abstract:
This master’s thesis deals with the revised Austrian Provincial Pharmacopoeia (Pharmacopoea Austriaco-provincialis emendata), published in Vienna in 1794. Its authors are Antonius L.B. de Störck, Joseph Franz von Jacquin, Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin, Johann Michael Schosulan, Wenzel von Czerny, Joseph Basgetha and Karl Josef Offermanns, all physicians and/or pharmacists by profession. This master's thesis contains critical evaluation of the said pharmacopoeia. It contains Slovene translations of the original Latin names of medicinal substances and preparations, which in some cases would correspond to today's term "medicine". We encountered minor difficulties in translating the materia medica, as we were looking for suitable names for some medicinal plants, Latin names of which have been completely changed since the end of the 18th century. The names of medicinal products are generally based on the pharmaceutical form, which is accompanied by information on the intended use, as well as by information on its contents. Some names of the preparations, which had not been previously found in Slovene literature, have been translated logically. We critically evaluated the preparations and active ingredients used at the time. For treatment, parts of medicinal plants and preparations were mostly used, some being substances of animal origin, and some being inorganic substances and organic molecules derived from plant material, indicating the use of "pure" chemicals in pharmacy. At that time, there were no synthetically obtained organic substances, as it was still three decades before the Woehler's synthesis of urea, the first synthetically prepared organic molecule. Most medicinal plants are well known today, much of them are still used in pharmacy or in traditional medicine. Some are no longer encountered in the field of pharmacy due to their proven ineffectiveness, side effects, toxic effects or simply due to reduced interest in their use. Many pharmaceutical forms and preparations which were used at that time (roob, trochisci, oximel) have been replaced by more advanced forms, while some have been preserved in practically unchanged composition, e.g. syrups, tinctures … The pharmacopoeia in question is comparable in content and quality with other important pharmacopoeias of that time. It covers most of the preparations known at the time, which were used by doctors and pharmacists for treatment in unchanged form or for the manufacture of medicines in the modern sense of the word. In accordance with the content of the pharmacy books of that time, the procedures for their preparation are described quite in detail.

Keywords:Pharmacopoea Austriaco-provincialis Emendata, materia medica, medicinal preparations, 18th century medicine and pharmacy

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