Introduction: Warming up before physical activity is considered to be one of the components of optimizing individual's performance in certain activities. Traditionally, warm-ups consist of sub-maximal aerobic components, stretching, and a segment where athletes are already performing a movement similar to their task or sport. In the last two decades, literature reviews started pointing out that static stretching immediately before exercise seems to have detrimental effects on performance, while dynamic stretching became increasingly popular in sports due to its possible positive effects. Purpose: The objective of the diploma work was to present the effects of static and dynamic stretching on various performance indicators. Methods: The method, used in this paper, was a literature review. Research papers included in the review had to be fully accessible randomized controlled trials in English language, published between 2009 and 2020 and were obtained from PubMed database. Results: 13 full text articles were included in the analysis. The following were used to assess performance: local muscle performance, jump height, sprint performance, agility, and other specific tests. The results of 11 studies report positive effects of dynamic stretching on performance and 9 studies reported negative effects of static stretching on various performance indicators. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that caution is required when implementing static stretching into the warm-up routine due to its possible negative effects. The literature is leaning more towards dynamic stretching because of its potential positive effects. However, each warm-up routine should be individualised according to athlete’s needs.